Diamond is one of the hardest materials known in the world and is a precious stone. One modification is graphite and the other is a diamond. Lavoisier, a French chemist, found that when he burned a diamond, the gas produced was just carbon dioxide and he concluded that diamond consists of pure carbon. The most prominent feature of the diamond which melts at 3547 degrees Celsius is its hardness. The diamond with a hardness of 10 is the hardest element in the world.
This high degree of hardness means that it can scratch all other minerals. Thanks to this feature, it has become a substance used in the industrial field. In addition to this, it is one of the most popular jewelry items because of its brilliance, hardness and perfect refraction of light. Diamonds, which are desired to be colorless has many colors such as pink, blue, green, yellow, and brown.
Carat is used as a unit of measure for weighing the diamond. 1 carat equals 200 milligrams. Karat is English and it is originating from the Arabic word “Kirat”. Kirat means carob bean kernel. Because these kernels have the same weight, they used to be used in the measurement of weights less than 1 g in old times. You can correlate the two now, the diamond and the carob bean kernel, I guess.
Diamond is formed at a certain temperature and pressure. The places where the formation takes place are the depths close to the core of the world. Approximately one-third of the diamond has gemstone status and is processed as jewelry, while the remaining two-thirds are used for industrial purposes. Artificial diamonds are produced for industrial use, but it is easily understood whether the diamond is artificial or natural, and the artificial ones have no value as an item of jewelry.
The First Use of Diamond
The diamond extracted in India in 500 BC was a substance traded by the Romans. When the value of diamonds was realized in medieval Europe, aristocratic people engaged in every effort to obtain diamonds. In this period, the best quality of diamonds remained in India and the lesser quality reached Europe. As a result, the diamond was polished and brought into an eye-catching shape.
Diamonds are produced extensively in countries such as Australia, South Africa, Botswana, Russia, Congo, and Canada. Today, it is still one of the most valuable minerals.
The Properties of the Diamond
- Diamond is one of the hardest natural minerals in the world.
- Diamond is a crystalline mineral made of pure carbon.
- An excellent conductor, diamond is also the most transparent material. Thanks to its conductivity, it can be cut without damage.
- The youngest known diamond in the world is about 1 billion years old and the oldest diamond is 3.5 billion years old.
- Diamonds are usually cut to 57 facets. Facet is the name given to angled surfaces that reflect light.
- Diamond is not too brittle, it can cut everything. So the only thing that can get into the diamond is light.
- Where Does the Diamond Come From?
Diamond is naturally found only in Kimberlite Chimneys. Other types of diamond formation are probably caused by abrasion from Kimberlite or metamorphosis of sediments. Kimberlite rock may sometimes contain no diamonds. The average rate of presence is one in forty million.
Kimberlite is a volcanic rock with high levels of magnesium and iron. There are many other minerals in these rocks. Calcite, olivine, ilmenite, mica, etc. Kimberlite is found in the deep layers of the earth’s crust as channels. It is accepted that the diamond goes up with some crust movements. In some parts, it is mixed with river sands. The most common locations for the diamond include Australia, South Africa (in Kimberley), South America, Indonesia, and India.
- How Is Diamond Produced?
The beneficiation of the diamond is like processing other minerals. Crystals alone are not so abundant. It is very scattered and even difficult to detect. There are ores close to the earth as well as ores that are 300 meters deep. Ore rocks are broken by dipping pipes. The extracted, sandy ore is passed through two processes. The ore is first floated in a dense liquid. Very heavy minerals sink to the bottom. Then the sandy-muddy mixture is vibrated up and down in a kind of sieve and the diamond is deposited to the bottom.
The only mineral that can be cut and polished by a separate system is the diamond. Many diamond crystals are such that they become spontaneous diamonds. But some have to be cut. Cutting requires attention and meticulousness. The value of diamonds is related to four factors: cut, color, size (carat) and clarity. Cutting is one of the most important factors. Increases the value of the piece size. It is also very important whether the diamond is cracked or not. Because the crack makes the entry of light difficult.
Diamond Mine: Valuable for Both Industrial and Ornamental Purposes
Diamond is one of the most valuable materials in the world, but it is also one of the hardest materials in the world. Today, especially used for ornamental purposes, diamond is a very precious stone rarely found in the world. Diamond is a precious mineral made entirely of carbon. The first person to discover the diamond is the French chemist Lavoisier.
Diamond is the hardest material in the world and hardness is 10 according to Mohs hardness indicator. Due to its high hardness, it has the ability to draw all the materials in the world. Therefore, it is used in many industries. Although artificial diamonds are used very much in the industrial area, the general usage area of diamonds is jewelry.
General features of the diamond mine are:
- Diamond is an important and valuable stone used as jewelry, it stands out because it is a mineral that breaks the light very well and is very strong.
- Diamond is a nonmetallic mine.
- The diamond can melt at very high temperatures. The melting point of the diamond is exactly 3547 degrees Celsius.
- The density of the diamond is 3.5 grams per cm3. (that is, a 1 cm3 diamond weighs 3.5 grams)
- Although the diamond melts at very high temperatures, it burns in the air at 850 degrees Celsius.
- If the diamond is heated to 1500 degrees in an air-free environment, carbon is converted to another product, graphite.
- The diamond has a structure that is not affected by any substance at room temperature. However, if it combines with fluorine at a temperature of 750 degrees, for example, carbon tetrafluoride is formed. It does not combine with other halogens.
- Foreign atoms may be present in the diamond mineral. However, the maximum number of foreign atoms is 1 per maximum number of 10,000 carbon atoms. The best natural diamond has only one foreign atom per 100,000 atoms.
- The diamond is very hard and can cut almost any material.
- The unit of measurement is called carat. As it is known, the weight in which the carat is equal in grams is 200 milligrams per 1 carat. (1 carat 0,200 grams) To simplify, we can say 1 gram diamond is 5 carats.
The most important feature that increases the value of the diamond is its high refractive property. At the same time, because of its high ability to split the white light into the colors, it is used both as jewelry and it is very valuable compared to other jewelry items.
Diamonds are generally divided into two in terms of absorbing light, the first type being the visible light absorbers and the second type absorbs the ultraviolet and infrared rays. The second type of diamonds is of course blue in color. Another important feature of diamonds is that they are extremely good conductors. They have the highest thermal conductivity.
Diamonds are not ubiquitous and are very valuable because they are rare metals. The only place where the diamond was originally found in the Kimberlite Chimneys. Kimberlite is the name given to the volcanic rock remains where magnesium and iron elements are present at high rates. The countries with the highest diamond production are listed below:
- South Africa
- South America
Usage Areas of Diamonds
The area where the diamond is mostly used in industry and jewelry. Although the amount of diamond used in the industry is greater, the diamond used in the jewelry is more than five times more valuable in terms of value. Many of us know how to use jewelry, but we do not know how to use diamonds in the industry. Some diamonds are not considered to be particularly precious stone types such as ballas, bort, and carbonadoes. They are used as glass cutters, drilling tools, stone chisel tools, and polishing tools. Diamonds are generally located close to the earth. In general, the depth does not exceed 250-300 meters.
In general, they are broken by inserting pipes into the rock where the diamond ore is located. Thus, the muddy and sandy ores extracted are floated in a dense liquid. In the meantime, heavy minerals are deposited to the bottom. The sandy muddy diamond mixture is sifted up and down with the help of a sieve.
Diamond has no single color. They can be yellow, brown, pink, violet, or green colored. The most valuable ones are pink, violet and green colored diamonds. Yellow and brown diamonds are not desired. The most important factors in the value of a diamond are:
1-Cutting: Diamond cutting method and cutting smoothness are the most important factors in the value of the diamond.
2-Color: the color of the diamond is again one of the most important factors in the value.
3-Clarity: diamond being bright and clear is one of the reasons that increase and decrease the value of the diamond.
4-Carat: the size and the smallness of the diamond is another factor to be evaluated.
Many studies have been carried out on whether diamond, a precious mineral, can be obtained artificially. Some of them have even recorded significant stages. As is known, the diamond consists entirely of carbon. Although some scientists have found that carbon is transformed into diamonds under high pressure and temperature, the quality of this diamond is far from that of naturally occurring diamonds. But at least they managed to make diamonds. In the 1960s, graphite was converted into diamonds by using high atmospheric pressure of 200.000 and a temperature of 5000 degrees Celsius.
The largest known diamond in the world is 191 carats. This diamond is known as the Light Mountain or Kuh-i Nur and is located in England. This diamond was found in India. The weight of this diamond in grams is 38.2 grams.
More About Diamond Mine
Diamond is a substance made up of crystallization (crystallization) of the pure carbon atom. Diamonds are formed by layer crystallization on the tetrahedral core structure. We can compare this to the structure of the onion or the formation of tree hens. This formation causes growth lines to occur within the diamonds. Cutting lines of diamonds may show parallel lines of growth. Raw diamonds are usually found in nature in the form of an octahedron.
Hardness: Diamond is the hardest known mineral in the world, taking the value of 10 from 1 to 10 in the Mohs Hardness Scale, which classifies the hardness of minerals. The mines on this scale are arranged in such a way that they can scratch the mines at a lower level. Mines at a lower level cannot draw upper ones.
Density: The density of the diamond is approximately 3.5 g / cm3. Density, which is the distinctive feature of the substances, also shows the effect on the diamond, giving a calculation possibility to distinguish it from similar ones. For example, while it is difficult to distinguish the stones obtained from the processing of cubic zirconia (5.5 g / cm3) from the diamond with the naked eye, a simple mathematical result can help you distinguish diamond from cubic zirconia using volume and density values.
Refractive Index: Diamond mine has a high refractive index. The light is exposed to a certain resistance according to the type of media as it travels in all other environments except space. This resistance causes light to produce various optical events (reflection, refraction, diffraction). The value of the refractive index of the diamond is between 2.4175-2.4178 according to the wavelength of the light passing through it. The substances slow down the light passing through them thanks to their index of refraction. Due to its high refractive index, the diamond slows light considerably. During the processing of the diamond, the processing (cutting) forms are preferred, taking into account the apparent occurrence of optical events related to the refractive index.
Some Other Properties: Some other properties of nonmetallic diamonds can be listed as follows:
- The melting point is 3547 ° C.
- Burns in the air at 850 ° C.
- It becomes graphite at 1500 ° C in the airless environment.
- The thermal conductivity of the diamond, which is a good thermal conductor, is 600-1500 Watt / m Kelvin.
- Diamonds other than boron-doped blue diamonds (semiconductor) do not conduct electricity.
- Diamond does not like water (hydrophobic) but likes oil.
- Diamonds not affected by acids are only affected by molten salts, such as potassium nitrate.
Products Made Using Diamond Mine
Diamonds are formed under high temperatures and pressures and come to the surface as a result of volcanic eruptions. Diamond is a mineral made of pure carbon. The carbon atoms in the diamond are closely connected. A high amount of energy is required to break the connection between diamond atoms. The bonds that hold the diamond together are strong covalent bonds. Therefore, diamond is the hardest of the minerals and is resistant to abrasion.
Diamonds are formed 160 to 480 km below the ground. Most of these are found in a volcanic rock called kimberlite and are extracted in areas where volcanic activity is still widespread. The other diamonds are separated from their original kimberlites and are strayed. South Africa now ranks fifth in diamond production, following Australia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Botswana, and Russia.
Diamond, because of its atomic and molecular structure, is present in crystalline form. Crystal forms in which the diamond is found in nature are:
8-point cube hexahedron
Of these, the octahedron is the most common form of diamond in nature and most suitable for cutting.
- Diamond Shapes
Diamonds can be cut in various ways. But the shape of a diamond and its cut should not be confused. The shape can be regarded as the main form of the diamond. An example of this is oval, drop, marquise. What is meant by cuts or measurements is the ability of any shape to reflect light. The shape of the diamond, the form of the raw diamond from the mine, the fashion of that shape, may be based on personal preferences that reflect the individual’s individuality. Non-circular cuts are often called fancy cuts.
The princess, emerald and radiant cuts are the ones that give less waste when cutting the raw diamond and show the interior and color more with its wide table. The diamond cutting shapes where there is more waste and that hides the inside and color more are round, triangular, oval, drop and marquise cuts. The most reflective shape of the diamond is round, which is fully symmetrical.
- Diamond Products
Diamond is one of the hardest materials known and precious stone. One modification of the carbon element is graphite and the other is the diamond. Diamond is the oldest of the precious stones. Most diamonds are at least 100 million years old. The most precious diamond, 3 billion years ago, was determined to have formed in the depths of the earth roasted in the fire. Diamond is very hard. No other natural material can match diamond with hardness. It is 2000 times harder than ruby and sapphire and 3000 times harder than man-made synthetic stones like cubic and zircon.
In brilliant diamond cuts, the most common diamond product, light is refracted in the stone and reflected back, giving an extraordinary fire and shine. In the brilliant cut, many different forms are possible. However, 57 faceted round cuts are the most commonly used. Facet is the name given to angled surfaces that reflect light.
- The Anatomy of Diamond
The section above the girdle is called the “Crown”. There are 33 facets in the crown section. Since the number of facets in the crown section is high, more reflection and brightness are observed in this section. The “Girdle” section may be natural, polished or faceted. The thickness of the girdle affects the brightness of the diamond. A thick-girdle diamond appears more matte, while a thin-girdle diamond is vulnerable to nailing. The girdle is an important part that keeps the diamond intact.
The section under the arch is called “cone”. There are 24 facets in the cone section. The cone section allows the light entering the diamond to be reflected out. As much as the right angle of the cone is cut, the light entering the diamond can be reflected and exits again in the best possible way. This ensures the optimum brightness of the diamond. Sometimes a facet can be cut at the end of the cone. With this facet, the most sensitive part of the diamond is prevented from damages that may occur on the cone tip. Although the world’s hardest mine, diamonds are vulnerable to impact from certain directions and can break quickly. The diameter is the size of the diamond girdle from one end to the other. Depth is the height of the diamond from the table to the tip of the cone.
- Diamond Crystal Structure
The crystal structure of the diamond is a face-centered cubic or FCC lattice. Each carbon atom is joined to four other carbon atoms with a regular quadrilateral (quadrangular prisms). Based on the symmetrical arrangement of the cubic form and atoms, diamond crystals can be transformed into several different shapes known as ‘crystal habits’. The most common crystal habit is the eight-sided octahedron or diamond shape. Diamond crystals can also consist of different combinations of cubic structure. Apart from the two classes of shapes, these structures are elements of the cubic crystal system.
The first is a flat form diamond crystal. The second is a class of carved crystals with rounded surfaces that can be long-shaped. Real diamond crystals do not have smooth faces. Graphite is more stable than a few electron volts than diamonds. With the energy needed to activate graphite, the whole crystal structure can be destroyed and rebuilt. Therefore, when the diamond is formed, it will not return to graphite since the energy limit is very high. Graphite is the stage before the diamond. Carbonized structures can stay under high pressure for millions of years and slowly come to diamond stability.