Diamond jewelry made of processing raw diamond with high hardness, good durability, and very good refractive properties. Diamond is a combination of carbon molecules. Therefore, it has a very hard structure. It can reflect light in various directions according to the shape of the chisel. Most of the diamond crystals are in the form of 8-sided particles and are very bright and suitable for cutting. Color, size and cut shapes are taken into account when valuing diamonds to be used for jewelry. Cracks on the diamond, ie carbon stains, reduce the value of the diamond. The pink, green and violet colors of the diamond are very precious ones. It is known that diamonds were discovered in India about 6 thousand years ago. China was the first to use the hard structure of the diamond by using it to cut precious stones. In the 18th century, diamonds were also found in Australia, Russia, and the United States.
There are 57 facets on the diamond. Facet is the name given to angled surfaces that reflect light. Diamond consists of three parts. These sections are crown, belt, and cone. The section above the belt is called the “Crown”. There are 33 facets in the crown section. Since the number of facets found in the crown section is high, more reflection and brightness are observed in this section. The crown section, therefore, appears whiter than the overall diamond. The “belt” section may be natural, polished or faceted. The thickness of the belt affects the brightness of the diamond. A thick-arched diamond appears more matte, while a thin-arched diamond is vulnerable to nailing. The belt is an important part that keeps the diamond intact. Without the belt, diamonds could not be used in production.
The section under the arch is called “cone”. There are 24 facets in the cone. The cone provides the reflection of the light entering the diamond. As much as the right angle of the cone is cut, the light entering the diamond is reflected and exits again. Thus, the optimum brightness of the diamond is provided. With this facet, the most sensitive part of the diamond is prevented from damages that may occur on the cone tip. Although the world’s hardest mine, diamonds are vulnerable to impacts from certain directions and can break quickly.
The value of a diamond is determined by 4C (Cut – Carat – Color – Clarity) properties. The 4C properties used to classify the diamond are cut, color, clarity, and carat weight. You should always consider these features when buying diamonds. The brightness and beauty of the diamond depend on these 4 criteria. The diamond does not lose anything from 4C unless it is accidentally damaged.
How Is Diamond Formed?
You know that diamonds, gold, and other precious metals are precious because they are rare. But have you ever wondered how the diamond is made and how it is produced? If yes, this article is just for you. Thousands, millions, and even billions of years ago, the extreme heat and pressure that formed over 200 km below the earth turned pure carbon (C) into colorless diamond crystals. Diamond is a monovalent mineral consisting of a single element (carbon element).
Eventually, volcanic movements began to bring the diamond to the surface of the Earth. Slits that provide volcanic motions, also known as kimberlite slits, pushed the diamond to the surface and this journey caused the heat of the diamond to decrease until it came to earth. Today, the areas where diamond mines are located are mainly areas where volcanic activity has been observed in the past as well as gravel deposits and ocean floor. Today, diamonds are mostly found in Africa, Russia, Australia, and Canada.
Diamond embraces many other minerals and colors in trace sizes during its journey to the Earth’s surface. Extra white diamonds are very rare and are the most expensive. Most diamonds contain brown or yellow colors. Yellow and brown diamonds are therefore cheaper. However, the other colored diamonds, blue, red, orange, pink and green diamonds do not exceed 100, because they are very expensive and collectibles.
This beautiful and popular precious mineral may seem like a delicate glass to the eye, but it is the hardest natural material in the world. Under extreme conditions, a diamond only cuts or breaks a diamond mine, although it may be possible to burn or break it under very severe conditions. The diamond is derived from the word “Adamas” or “Adamantinos” in the ancient Greek language which means “cannot be domesticated, easily disintegrated”. This shows people’s view of diamonds in history.
Diamond being the hardest material in nature makes it also suitable for industrial use. It is used as a cutting tool in lathe, milling, drill, saw and many other machines. According to the experts, 80% of all diamonds in the world are used for industrial purposes, only 20% of them are used in precious metals and precious jewelry sector.
Since the 1950s, diamonds have been created by men for industrial purposes. Industrialists were able to produce their own diamonds for industrial use by replicating the underground production process of the diamonds for millions of years in laboratories. On the other hand, some manufacturers are now able to produce precious mineral quality diamonds in laboratories. Unlike millions of years of natural occurrence, the diamond developed by human beings in days can have the same chemical, physical and optical appearance as natural diamonds.
The difference between natural and rhinestone with invisible differences can only be distinguished by special tests in the laboratory. While beautiful colored diamonds are rare in nature, man-made diamonds can be transformed into the desired color during the manufacturing process. Man-made diamonds are cheaper than natural diamonds.
History of Diamond Jewelry
Diamond has been in human life for thousands of years and contains many different usage areas, historical moments and much more. Diamond is the processed state of the diamond mine, which is found in the raw state in nature. The diamonds found in nature were separated from other mines by their luster in the early ages, and they have been loaded with different meanings throughout history. Although it has a very detailed history, we will tell the historical moments of the diamond here.
B.C. 800-1000: Diamond is believed to have been discovered in India about 3,000 years ago.
B.C. 327: Alexander the Great, King of the Macedonian Empire, began to bring the first diamonds from India to Europe.
1074: The first use of diamonds on jewelry was made by a diamond embellishment of the crown of a Hungarian queen.
1375: The first shape of the diamond is improved. The diamond was transformed into a diamond for the first time in the form of a pointcut. The pointcut means that the natural shape of the diamond becomes a standard shape by performing some processing. Prior to this development, only diamonds that were found in nature in good shape were considered valuable and were taken away, and diamonds, which came out of the mine as bad shape, were neglected because no one knew how to cut or shape them. Therefore, in the formation of diamonds, the first shaped diamonds, that is, diamonds, are pointcut diamonds and are one of the most important turning points in the history of diamonds.
1477: The diamond engagement ring was first presented by Archduke Maximilian of Austria to Mary of Burgundy, and the tradition of men proposing marriage with a diamond ring began. However, this tradition was mainly applied by the aristocratic section.
1520: Rose Cut Diamond cut, which resembles a bud, is discovered.
1681: Peruzzi Cut was discovered by a Venetian diamond handler. Compared to the previous popular cuts, the number of facets in the crown of the diamond was increased from 17 to 33 in Peruzzi, which increased the brightness of the diamond considerably.
1902: Cullinan Diamond, the world’s largest raw diamond, was discovered in a mine in South Africa. You can take a look at the most famous diamonds in the world.
1919: Brilliant Cut, which is still the most widely used diamond shape today, was discovered by Marcel Tolkowsky. The brilliant-cut is the most effective factor in making the cut more popular than other cut types in many aspects such as optical properties, cut rates, and light reflectance.
Diamond Jewelry Shapes
Diamonds appear in many different ways. Each diamond shape has different basic qualities. Therefore, it is worth your time to find out the details about many diamond shapes and meanings. While diamonds come in many different shapes, round diamonds are generally preferred in the world and round diamonds are followed by baguette, oval, drop and princess diamonds. Apart from the basic diamond models, they may have very special productions and can be cut in any way. There are many different types of diamonds such as “Horse” Shaped Diamond, “Star” Shaped Diamond, “Christmas Tree” Shaped Diamond, and so on.
- Round Cut Diamond (Brilliant Cut)
Round Diamond is the most popular form of diamond in the world in terms of diamond engagement rings. The base is conical in order to maximize the rotation of the light from the top. A total of 58 facets (each face on a diamond is called a facet) are located in the hill region, while 25 are in the cone.
- Princess (Square) Cut Diamond
The princess (square) diamonds have a sharp dimension, which makes a different effect, especially in solitaire models. The fact that princess diamonds can be used in both modern and traditional solitaire has recently made them more popular.
- Oval-Cut Diamond
Oval-Cut Diamond can be shown as a modified and more modern version of Round Cut Diamond. It is a form of diamond that is preferred by those who want to have a brilliant but slightly more unusual structure similar to a round cut. The oval cut diamonds also create an optical illusion due to their long length and appear larger than the round cut diamond of the same carat size.
- Drop-Cut Diamond
Drop Diamond Shape is a diamond shape that is created by combining tear and drop themes while preserving the brightness of traditional round cut. This shape of the diamond is the most relative form of cut because its size and dimensions can vary from cut to cut. Therefore, although it does not have a certain number of facets and standards, it usually consists of 58 facets. These facets, which allow light to pass through and reflect like the round diamond, have a different effect due to the unusual shape of the diamond. In addition to rings, this model is especially used in necklaces and earrings. In addition, colored stone jewelry (ruby, sapphire emerald) is highly preferred for this cut.
- Emerald-Cut Diamond
Emerald cut diamonds have gained popularity with their different styles and beauties. In addition to showing less brightness than other diamond shapes, it is a diamond shape where clarity is the most important factor due to its flat and thin structures. The slightest change in clarity can be observed more clearly than other diamond shapes. The reason that it is named emerald is due to the fact that this diamond cut shape was used only for emerald in ancient times.
- Baguette-Cut Diamond
Baguette-cut diamonds have become fashionable in some regions in the recent period and even if they are not preferred much in the world, they are at the forefront in some countries. In addition to the similarities with emerald-cut diamonds, the most obvious difference is the layered structure in baguette-cut diamonds. Layer-cut table edges provide brightness to the diamond and reflect light. It is especially preferred in rows with stones or full / half rings and bracelets.
- Heart Cut Diamond
Heart Cut Diamond is similar to a round cut diamond, but the most obvious difference is the slight slit on the top that makes it heart-shaped. It has a good structure in terms of brightness with its similarity to round cut diamond. The most important aspect of this romantic diamond-shape is the symmetry of the two basic lines that make up the heart shape. The distinction between the two lobes should be clear and sharp, and both lobes should have rounded lines. Heart cut diamonds, usually below 0.50 carats, should not be preferred since the lines cannot be clearly identified. The most suitable jewelry for heart-cut diamonds is 3-4 ring or bezel ring models.
- Cushion-Cut Diamond
Cushion Cut Diamond is an antique diamond cut that creates a classic and romantic effect. It is a diamond shape formed by combining the popular cut at the end of the 19th century with the modern Oval Cut Diamond, known as the Old Mines. Cushion Cut Diamond has 58 facets.
- Asscher Cut Diamond
Asscher Cut Diamond, in other words, Square Emerald-Cut Diamond, is a diamond shape that has clipped corners and can be seen in octagonal shape due to this corner structure. It is bright, lively and clean in appearance. As Emerald Cut Diamond, you can see all the details in this diamond form because of the defects in color and clarity that can be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, Asscher Cut Diamond is preferred in perfect clarity. Joseph Asscher developed this type of cut in 1902 and named it after himself. It is the first diamond cut to be patented.
Colors of Diamond Jewelry
When you buy diamond jewelry, more white (transparent) color stones are preferred. The color in diamonds is evaluated in five general categories on a scale from D to Z. These; extra white (colorless), white (nearly colorless), faint yellow (very yellow), very light yellow, and light yellow. In fact, diamonds contain all colors in nature. Here you see the dominant color in the diamond when determining the color scale. The predominant color in transparent diamonds is the yellow color caused by the trace of the nitrogen element. As the nitrogen content in the diamond decreases, its value and whiteness increase.
Generally, when the color is compared between the two diamonds, the diamonds should be at least two degrees different from each other so that the difference can be understood. The following diamond color order will make you understand that it is almost impossible to see a color difference between two consecutive color levels. Although the diamond creates magnificence with its brightness and beauty seen from the top angle, some color changes can be seen from the side angle.
One of the first known mistakes about diamond color grading is the structure of the grading. The diamond color scale, which is generally thought to start with the letter A, starts with D. So why does this rating start with color D?
Before the grading system established by the GIA (American Institute of Gemmology) was widely accepted, different diamond traders used the best diamond color to indicate “A”, “AA” or other different definitions. Predictably, in such an uncertain environment, a great inconsistency arose, and it was inevitable that the terms used to describe a diamond would lead to complexity. The main reason why the GIA color grading system, which is widely used today, starts with D is that it is not confused with the inconsistent grading systems used in the market at that time.
- Extra White Diamond (D-E-F):
The diamonds that meet the extra white (ie extra colorless) standard are the rarest and valuable diamonds in color. It is a diamond color class that is not preferred much because of its high prices. It is preferred by those who care about color in diamonds.
D color diamond: It never shows the color and contains less different colors in its content and increases the brightness by reflecting the light in the most effective way. The value is quite high. Although it is the rarest diamond color class, it is preferred less because of its high price.
E color diamond: It contains only a few colors that can be seen only by gemologists. It is a rare stone color class.
F color diamond: The diamond with the highest price/performance ratio of the extra white diamond class. It is the most preferred diamond color class of the extra white diamond class because the difference between the F color and the E color diamond can be distinguished only by gemologists and the price is more suitable than D and E color diamonds.
- White Diamond (G-H-I-J)
White Diamonds are classified as white diamonds in the upper view. However, when viewed from a white background and bottom angle, they show a small amount of color. Such a small color content cannot be observed after the diamond is mounted on the jewelry. Diamonds in the class of white diamonds have the highest price/performance in diamond color grading. They show a high value compared to their prices. It is the most popular and sold diamond color category in the world. Since the diamonds after J color diamonds appear to be yellow, there is little trade, while the extra white diamonds, which are the diamonds before the G color diamonds, are only available on special orders due to the excessive price.
G – H Color Diamond: The difference between these two degrees is not a difference that can be observed by the naked eye or by comparison. This is the last diamond grade that does not contain a trace of yellow color in its diamond color grading. It is one of the most preferred diamonds in the world. It both shows a white color and can be bought at an affordable price. Once installed in the jewelry, the difference between the extra white is too small to be apparent.
I – J Color Diamond: As with G and H color diamonds, the difference between I and J color diamonds is too small to be observed. They show traces of yellow color but appear white. It is the second most preferred class in the world.
- Near White Diamond (K-L-M):
Although the diamonds, which are close to white, in other words in the weak colored diamond category, show a slight color when viewed from above, the stones in this category may be a suitable option for those who are not color sensitive.
K – L – M Color Diamond: The color classes in this class and later have direct yellow or brown color and appear in the assembled diamond with the naked eye. Some may be preferred in terms of color.
- Very Light Colored Diamond (N-O-P-Q-R):
N – O – P – Q – R Color Diamond: These are very light yellow or brown colored diamonds. This color can be clearly observed even in small or assembled diamonds. This is the most suitable diamond color class that can be preferred in jewelry in terms of price. The reason for this is that they do not have the color class because they do not have a yellow or brown color and they do not show many traces of white and they are far from white class.
- Light Colored Diamond (S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z):
S – T – U – V – W – X – Y – Z Color Diamond: This class is the last color class before the yellow or brown color diamond. Light-colored diamonds form this class. It is generally not preferred in the use of diamond jewelry. Prices are very low because they are not considered as diamonds even though they are diamonds.
Cut of Diamond Jewelry
When you think of cutting diamonds, people usually think of the shape of the diamond. However, the shape shows the appearance of the diamond (round cut diamond, heart cut diamond, drop cut diamond, etc.). Cutting refers to the state of providing the cut rates, symmetry, and brightness of the diamond. Regardless of color, clarity, and carat, a well-cut diamond looks brilliant and clear, and a poorly cut diamond looks dark and lifeless. Therefore, we can say that cutting is the most important factor in 4C.
Well-cut diamonds look brighter and appear larger than diamonds of the same carat. In other words, the “ideal” cut diamond has a larger diameter than the deep cut diamonds. Shallow-cut diamonds, on the other hand, cannot show enough brightness because they cannot reflect the light back. Therefore, ideal cut diamonds are more effective than others.
Diamonds are divided into five categories according to their segments. These;
- Fair (reasonable)
- Very Good
Very Good and Excellent cut diamonds are preferred. Carat is seen as the most important factor in the eyes of the diamond consumer in the world. However, this perception needs to be changed over time. Because if a diamond with 1 carat has a poor cut, it is more unpretentious than a diamond with an excellent cut of 0.50 carats and is similar to zircon stones. Therefore, the cut is seen as the most important factor by people engaged in the diamond trade.
A diamond with ideal cut, cut at ideal proportions and angles, and show excellent glare and symmetry. The most important feature of an ideal cut diamond is that it provides an excellent proportion and reflects the light back from the tray and cone and provides brightness.
The crystals in the crude diamond are shaved to obtain optimal cuts by observing natural particles. For example, let’s say that two diamonds are produced from raw diamonds. One of them is an excellent cut and larger carat, the other is poor or fair cut and carat is a lower diamond. In commercial terms, it is aimed to extract the maximum possible diamond from the raw diamond. Excellent cuts and a large carat diamond are obtained while the remainder of the diamond is either shaved to obtain small (0.01-0.05 carat) diamonds, or poor or fair cut diamonds are obtained in order to maintain the carat value. The main objective here is to maximize profit.
What you need to pay attention to when buying diamonds is that they do not have poor or fair cuts. If it does not appear in the diamond’s certificate, you can tell from the fact that the diamond reflects light when it is exposed to glare and light at different angles.
Carat of Diamond Jewelry
Carat is seen as the most important factor in the selection of a diamond stone. So, what exactly are 0.50 carats or 1 carat? Technically speaking; 1 carat equals 200 milligrams. When you buy a 1-carat diamond, it means that you have bought 0.20 grams of diamonds. When you first hear it, you may think that “Why is the weight of a diamond expressed in carat?” Wouldn’t it be more appropriate to use grams or similar terms that are used in international standards in selling precious and meaningful products like diamonds?
To tell the truth, the history of the term carat provides an interesting basis for this. The stem of the word “carat” originated from the word “carob” used in English to refer to a tree that provides edible pods. In ancient times, carob seed was used by merchants as a benchmark in weight measurement. In this period when technology was not developed, one carat was equal to one carob seed, and trade was made with this simple assumption.
Predictably, carob seeds were different in size and weight and could vary by one carat depending on the region of the world. In the early 1890s, if you bought a “1-carat” diamond, the weight could vary between 0.94 and 1.06 carats compared to today’s carat unit. This situation caused great uncertainty when considering the material value. Much has changed since ancient times, and highly accurate weighing instruments replaced carob seeds, but the sector had to continue the habit of using the term carat, and 1-carat diamond was fixed at 0.20 grams.
What is the first question or first response when a new diamond purchase is heard? Of course, the first question, “How many carats of diamonds?” You have encountered this scenario many times during the process of buying diamond jewelry. The main reason for this is the perception that the size of the diamond corresponds to the direct value or price of the jewel. And in most societies, this is shown as a sign of a person’s status or wealth. Beyond that, we have been convinced that the big is always better with press and advertising campaigns.
Fake Diamond Jewelry: Diamond-Like Substances
Moissanite: Moissanite is the most similar substance to diamond. Moissanite was discovered in 1893 in a meteor crater of thousands of years in the United States and is located only there. It is the rarest mine in the world because it is located in only one crater and is named after the French scientist Moissan who discovered this crater. In 1998, an American jewelry company, which produces high-tech moissanite, which resembles diamonds, has been revived the mine which has been forgotten 100 years ago. Nowadays, moissanite can be considered as the most difficult gemstone in terms of separating from the diamond. Although the price of the moissanite stone is 6-8 times more favorable than the diamond, there are scammers selling diamonds because of the similarity.
Although it is impossible to differentiate between moissanite and diamond, the moissanite is characterized by the fact that it looks like a champagne color (J color) and that there are no small traces in it and it has a double reflection feature. On the other hand, a diamond with the J color and FL clarity can be separated from moissanite only with the double reflection property. However, since a diamond will be very valuable, you can tell the difference from the price as well.
Zircon: Although it is an easy stone to be separated by diamond, it is very worthless. It can easily be distinguished by its inability to brighten the diamond and its opacity in color. Until 10 years ago, zircon was mounted on gold and sold. However, nowadays, everyone has knowledge that zircon stone is usually mounted on silver and alike jewelry in the market.
Synthetic Diamonds: Today’s technological developments have brought the diamonds to the extent that they can be produced in a laboratory environment that is identical to diamonds and cannot be distinguished. Although these diamonds are not very common in the world yet, their prices are similar to diamonds. Synthetic diamond-producing laboratories have produced the healthiest and most similar diamonds at the end of last year. In order to distinguish these, it is necessary to pay attention to the name of the laboratory that the laboratories have written on the belt. It is a discovery that can change the face of the diamond sector in the next 10 years, while it is not widespread today.
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