All You Need to Know About Diamond Ore

Diamond, one of the hardest materials in the world, is very valuable materially. Diamond, which is extremely hard, melts at 3547 degrees Celsius. The formation place of the diamond ore, which is formed under a certain temperature and pressure, is the depth close to the earth’s core, although it is under the earth’s crust. Diamond, a crystalline mineral composed of pure carbon, is a highly transparent substance.

Diamond ore occurs in the lower crust of the earth’s crust, at the upper mantle boundary, approximately 150 km below the earth’s surface. It reaches the earth by the movements of the earth’s crust or by volcanic eruptions. With the separation of the continents, the diamond ores in the depths approached the earth. This is thought to be the reason why it is common in Africa. Thanks to the technology developed over time, mines can be excavated to reach the diamonds in the upper mantle, and diamonds can be extracted even from under the ocean and even under the glaciers.

Diamond ore was first found in India in history. Many wars have been fought in order to dominate the regions where the diamond is located. It is thought that Alexander the Great introduced the diamond to Europe on his return from his campaign. However, there is no information that diamonds were mined in Europe.

In 1728, diamond ore deposits were found in the Minas Gieres region, near the city of Diamantina in Brazil. Later, diamonds, gold, platinum, tourmaline, topaz, and zircon were also found in different parts of Brazil. Brazil has led world diamond production for nearly two centuries. In 1895, a 3167-carat carbonado (black) diamond was mined from Brazil and remains the largest diamond ever found.

In 1867, fertile diamond deposits were found in Africa. Kimberley, Primer, Transvaal, Kap, Orange… Millions of carats of diamonds have been mined in these regions for many years without even using the equipment. Mining started when the diamonds on the surface were exhausted and important mines are still located here. In 1905, the Cullinan Diamond, weighing 3106 carats and currently in the British Crown, was mined.

The world’s largest pit dug by man is the Kimberley (the big hole) mine in South Africa. The mine, which was opened in 1871 with a width of 463 meters and a depth of 240 meters, was closed in 1914. The depth of the mine, which was filled after its closure, decreased to 215 meters, and over time, water accumulated at a depth of about 40 meters.

Another country where a significant amount of diamonds is extracted today is Russia. In Russia, diamond deposits were encountered in the Urals in 1829, but because they were not enough to have commercial value, they were not referred to as the country where diamonds were extracted until they were found in the Yakutia region in 1949. The Mirny Mine in Western Siberia is one of the largest open diamond mines in the world, with a width of 1200 meters and a depth of 525 meters.

Another diamond mine in the Yakutia region, 1000 meters in diameter and 570 meters deep, which can be seen even from space, is Nyurbinsk. Udachnaya, Botoubinskaya, Jubilee are other major diamond mines in Russia. In order to extract approximately 1.00 ct of diamonds, 5 tons of soil is processed. Diamond is not only used in the jewelry industry, it also has great importance and place in the industry. In fact, it should be noted that only 20% of the diamonds mined are of gem quality.

Diamonds were found in Australia in 1980. The Argyle mine in Rio Tinto is the most famous and is famous for its purple diamond weighing 2.83 carats. In 1990, Canada became one of the countries where diamonds were extracted. Ekati and Diavik, located in the 200km circle of the North Pole, are the important mines of the region. Today, the countries where diamonds are mined are as follows, in order of importance:

  • Canada
  • Angola
  • Botswana
  • Russia
  • South Africa
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Australia
  • Namibia

How Diamond Ore Is Formed?

Diamond ores ejected to the earth’s surface during deep-source volcanic eruptions are waiting to be discovered by humans. Since volcanic eruptions occur very rarely, they have not had a chance to be observed by modern humans. The planets that have crashed into the earth many times throughout history cause very high temperatures and pressure to occur. Even for the formation of diamonds, the blows of the planetesimals that hit the earth are too much.

Formed billions of years ago almost at the beginning of time, the diamond is one of the world’s immortal jewels. Mankind has been able to find very few of the total diamonds today. Although all diamonds have different values, very few of them have the quality to be used in jewelry. Even there are modern methods are used for diamond mining, finding diamonds is still an extremely difficult task.

It is also possible to obtain diamonds by the metamorphosis of coal. The diamond formed in the mantle was brought to the surface by deep-source volcanic eruptions. These eruptions produce kimberlite and lamproite chimneys. Many of these chimneys do not contain diamonds, but very few do. High temperature and pressure are required for the formation of diamonds. High temperature and pressure, on the other hand, only occur in certain parts of the world.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that most of the diamonds have nothing to do with coal formation. There is a big difference between the age of diamonds and the age of coal. Coal, which consists of the remains of terrestrial plants, is younger than all diamonds. Coal does not play an important role in the formation of natural diamonds.

Today, most diamonds are made in a laboratory environment. The temperature and pressure required for the formation of diamonds are provided in the laboratory environment. A portion of the electricity is met as coal for the diamond, which is made by consuming a huge amount of electricity. It is possible to say that the biggest contribution of coal in diamond formation takes place in the laboratory environment. Diamonds made in the laboratory have many colors such as green, blue, and orange.

Properties of Diamond Ore

Diamond, which is mostly transparent in nature as well as being colorless and hard, appears as a type of carbon. Although it is a type of carbon element, it is also known for being very hard. First, the diamond came into our lives with the work done by the French chemist Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier.

It was also determined by the same chemist through his studies that carbon dioxide was produced as a result of the burning of diamonds. The use of diamond, which begins to melt at 3547 degrees Celsius, is mostly in industry and business divisions.

Carbon diamond, which emerges with the formation of pressure at a certain temperature, is also distinctive in its features. The properties of diamond, which is considered the hardest among natural minerals, affect both its usage areas and formation processes. In addition to being transparent, the use of diamonds in jewelry collections is attractive because of the excellent refraction of light.

The first use of diamond material, which has the property of being a conductor, dates back to before Christ. According to known history, it was first mined in the Indian Region and later became a valuable commodity traded by the Romans. Today, its production is much more intense in South Africa, Congo, Russia, and Australia.

Diamond ores, which are estimated to be formed by movements in the earth’s crust, have been in the use of people for thousands of years. After the exploration works under the ground, it is processed with special techniques. For ore rocks that may be sandy or loamy, breaking is done. It is then floated in a dense liquid. While very heavy minerals are allowed to collapse to the bottom, the ability of diamonds to be used as polished brings them to be diamonds.

The formation of diamonds is completed after a very difficult as well as a costly process. Therefore, in general, there is much more diamond production by countries with a high level of development. Today, cutting activities also play a role in the use of diamonds. It is also possible to make the hard material, which is resistant to very high temperatures, an eye-catching state.

The quality and size of the diamond placed on jewelry such as rings, necklaces, with the shiny part facing upwards, express its value. While there are certain quality differences between diamond ores, cutting processes also have a say in the formation of a much more interesting structure. Undoubtedly, the first place among the areas of use of diamonds is in precious jewelry such as diamonds. Especially nowadays, the cuts of diamonds can be very different due to the rapid advancement of technology.

The diamond, which was first created in 1919 by Marcel Tolkowsky with a diamond cut, still continues with various alternatives. While it is used in antique jewelry designs, it is also seen in heavy industry sections. However, to make a rough definition, one-third of the total diamonds are considered jewels, which have the status of precious stones. The remaining two-thirds are used in industrial studies. The general characteristics of the diamond ore are as follows:

  • Chemical Composition, C
  • Crystal System, Cubic
  • Crystal Form, Usually octahedral, also as cubic, tetrahedral crystals, with mostly twisted surfaces; rarely massive
  • Twinning is common on surface {111} and {001}
  • Hardness, 10
  • Specific Gravity, 3.51
  • Cleavage, {111} is perfect
  • Color and Transparency, Colorless, white, blue-white, grey, yellow, brown, orange, pink, red, lavender-blue, green, black. Transparent, translucent, rarely opaque
  • Line Color, White
  • Luster, Shiny, diamond glitter
  • Distinctive Features, Extreme hardness, octahedral cleavages, fluorescence under ultraviolet light
  • Its occurrence, together with olivine, pyrope, and phlogopite in Kimberlites or volcanic vents; is found in conglomerates, alluvial placers, and rarely in meteorites.

The Value of Diamond Ore

Diamond ore is composed of carbon atoms such as graphite and coal. The only difference between them has to do with the arrangement of the carbon atoms. Chemically, diamond, coal, and graphite are allotropes of each other. Unlike coal and graphite, it is one of the hardest materials known in nature. The idea that diamond consists of pure carbon was noticed by the French chemist Lavoisier.

Diamond is naturally found only in a rock called kimberlite. Kimberlite got its name when it was first found in Kimberley, South Africa, in 1870. Due to the movement of kimberlites in natural conditions, diamond ore can also be found in rivers. It is mostly obtained from rocks in South Africa, Tanzania, and America. It is found in alluvial deposits in countries such as Brazil, Zaire, and India.

In industry and mineral science, the hardness degrees of materials are shown in Mohs units, and the hardness degree of the diamond is 10 Mohs. Because of its hardness, artificial diamonds produced are used in industrial machines. Natural diamonds, on the other hand, are mostly used as jewelry and are also one of the most expensive jewelry items. Diamonds show nonmetal properties, that is, they are not metals. Its melting point is 3547 degrees. It burns at 850 degrees in a normal atmosphere environment.

In ancient times, carob seeds were used to measure the weight of a diamond. Carat, which means carob seed in Arabic, has become a unit of measurement as carat. Carob seeds were preferred because they have the same weight on average and are not affected by factors such as humidity. Today, 1 decision corresponds to 0.200 grams.

A diamond ore cut with special methods is called a diamond. The diamond is a special cut type of diamond with 57 facets. Facet is the name given to the surface created at a special angle. In other words, there are 57 surfaces on the diamond. Many naturally mined diamond ores are in the form of diamonds. The faceting process is done on diamonds that are not in this form and it is a very laborious and meticulous process. Four factors determine the value of diamonds: cut, size, color, and clarity.

At the same time, it is preferred that there are no cracks. Yellow and brown diamonds are undesirable, but pink, green, and violet-colored diamonds are preferred. The largest diamond producer company in the world is the British company De Beers. Diamond is found in kimberlite rocks around the world. The diamond, which comes out of other rocks, was formed by the erosion of kimberlite rocks and the change of rocks. Apart from these, materials such as calcite, olivine, ilmenite, and mica are found in kimberlite rock.

It is thought that the diamond ore came to the surface with the movement of the earth’s crust, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. In some areas, it is also thought to mix with river sands. Diamond ore is mostly mined from South Africa, South America, Indonesia, and India in the world. Diamond ore is processed in the same way as other minerals. Just as there are places where the diamond is scattered under the ground, there are also ore rocks. These ore rocks are broken by sending pipes.

The mined loamy, sandy ore goes through two processes. First, it is floated in a dense liquid. Minerals that are too heavy sink to the bottom. Afterward, the sandy and muddy mixture is sieved by up and down vibration, allowing the diamond to settle to the bottom. Diamond is the only mineral that is both got cut and polished with a separate system. Many diamond minerals are in a state to become diamonds on their own. But some are cut off. Cutting it requires a lot of attention and meticulousness.

The value of the diamond is about its cut, color, size, and clarity. Whether there are cracks or not is also a very important value. Cracks that leave a yellow and brown effect reduce the value of this color diamond. Pink, violet, green diamonds are considered very valuable. Another characteristic of a diamond is its hardness. The highest value is 10. Diamond shows non-metal features. Its melting point is 3,500 degrees. Its density is about 3.5 gr/cm3. 1 carat is equal to 205 milligrams. Its ability to refract light and its ability to separate white light into colors make it valuable jewelry.

Diamond Ore and Jewelry Diamond

Diamond ore is the raw, unprocessed mineral state of the diamond. The history, age, symbolism, and dazzling brilliance of the diamond have made the diamond the most valuable and meaningful of all jewelry. Every diamond is unique and no diamond is the same as another. Buying a diamond, which has existed since the beginning of time and is the gift of nature, is very special shopping.

Diamond ore dates back billions of years, almost to the beginning of time. Every diamond is extremely old, even formed long before the dinosaurs existed. Even older than some stars in the sky, the diamond’s history is based on an astonishing journey. This journey has made a very ancient element one of the immortal jewels of the world.

Crystallized deep in the earth’s crust under extremely high heat and pressure, the diamond ore kept its precious secrets until it was brought to the earth’s surface with the help of volcanic lava from volcanoes. Then it faced the wearing effects of nature for thousands of years. Only a few of them have been able to endure this ordeal, which has astonished mankind. Very few of these have the size and quality to be used in jewelry.

Diamond mining started in India more than 2800 years ago. Although many new and modern methods are used today, finding diamonds is still a very difficult task. Geologists seek nature’s most precious stones everywhere, from the frozen tundra of Siberia and Canada to the scorching deserts and ocean bottoms of Africa. To find a single diamond, they have to sift enough soil to fill a house.

Diamond cut; It is a very delicate job that requires imagination, skill, training, and patience. In ancient times, diamonds were left uncut. They would be placed deep within their mounts, leaving only the soft shine of their upper surfaces out, and they would appear dark and mysterious. By the 14th century, craftsmen began investigating the intricate cutting and polishing techniques necessary to make stones shine. All these techniques are still being developed today and new ones are found.

No tool could cut the diamond, not even the hottest fire could leave a trace on it. This is why many people believed that the diamond had supernatural properties. For the Greeks, the tears of the gods were the tears of the stars for the Romans. The Indians also looked at the diamond as a good luck charm that kept disease, theft, and evil at bay. In other cultures, these stones were believed to have healing and wisdom powers.

Legends revolving around the diamond have made it a highly sought-after stone. Ancient kings wore diamonds in battles; Queens and concubines wanted to have diamonds as a symbol of power and passion. Unique, precious, and indestructible, this stone has been used for centuries to symbolize love. The tradition of gifting diamond rings as a symbol of love and devotion has spread to all cultures of the world today.

No jewel can capture and symbolize emotions and important moments of life as perfectly as a diamond. Giving or receiving a diamond increases the value of life’s special moments. A marriage proposal, Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, New Year’s Eve, the celebration of achieving a personal goal, or simply the desire to reward oneself… No matter what, a special day becomes unforgettable when celebrated with diamonds. After all, a diamond is a piece of eternity.

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Savaş Ateş

My wife has a huge interest in diamonds. After she asked me a lot of questions about it, I found myself in diamonds. I made a lot of research on it. I read books. I visited manufacturers. I visited the stores. I have made good friends in that field. I want to share my experiences with you.

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