Diamond, which is mostly transparent in nature as well as being colorless and hard, appears as a type of carbon. Although it is a type of carbon element, it is also known for being very hard. First, the diamond came into our lives with the work done by the French chemist Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier. On the other hand, quartz is one of the most abundant minerals on earth. The chemical structure of quartz consists of silicon and oxygen. While it was used to do magic in ancient times, it is one of the stones used for therapeutic purposes today. When it comes to quartz stone, a very large stone family should come to mind, not a single stone. Because there are many varieties and some of them are now called by their own name. Citrine, amethyst, chrysoprase are some of them. What if we compare diamond versus quartz?
Carbon diamond, which emerges with the formation of pressure at a certain temperature, is also distinctive in its features. The properties of diamond, which is considered the hardest among natural minerals, affect both its usage areas and formation processes. In addition to being transparent, the use of diamonds in jewelry collections is also attractive because of the excellent refraction of light. On the other hand, quartz stone, which is generally in crystalline form, also has crystalline forms that are invisible to the eye. They are translucent and opaque. The crystalline ones are glassy and easily breakable. Quartz stone is mostly white in color. But in nature, there are also colors such as yellow, pink, blue, brown, black, and green. Quartz changes color according to the substances mixed into it. Let’s get into more detail about the diamond-quartz versus.
General Information About Quartz
The formula of quartz is SiO2 and it contains 46.5% Si and 53.3% O2 in pure form. It is one of the most common minerals in the earth’s crust, with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale, a specific gravity of 2.65 g / cm3, a melting temperature of 1785 °C. The main elements found in solid solution in natural quartz are; Li, Na, AI, Ti, and Mg. It is generally colorless, but can also be seen in many different colors. Colored formations were formed by gas, liquid, and solid inclusions. Although the quartz mineral does not dissolve, it only dissolves in hydrofluoric acid. It shows piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties.
Quartz varieties are divided into two separate groups as coarse crystalline (milk quartz, amethyst, blue quartz, pink quartz, etc.) and cryptocrystalline quartz (chalcedony, agate, onyx, agate, precipitate, sard tripoli, etc.). Milk quartz and vitreous quartz are used in glass, detergent, paint, ceramics, metallurgy industries, and as abrasive and filler after grinding and ore preparation processes. Although the quartz mineral is mostly found in igneous rocks, it can also be formed by sedimentation or metamorphism.
Quartz that is in an igneous rock or in sandstone cannot be qualified as a quartz mine, but quartz crystals or amorphous formations formed as secondary veins in faults and cracks have economic value. The largest quartz deposits in the world are in Brazil. Known natural, ultra-pure quartz reserves are located in Brazil, the USA, Namibia, Angola, Madagascar, China, and India. These reserves are either primary or secondary formations and do not show continuity.
Such quartzes are of good quality to be used in the electronics industry. The world’s best and largest amethysts are also available in Brazil. Amorphous or cryptocrystalline quartz deposits are found in Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Hungary, the Republic of South Africa, Spain, and Norway. Reliable sources about world quartz reserves could not be reached. Pure quartz crystals are used in the optics and electronics industry and as ornamental stones.
In the chemical industry, it is consumed in the production of crystalline silicon metal and crucibles. Ultra-pure quartz is used in the optics, electronics, and electrical industries. In addition, quartz is ground and consumed in glass, detergent, paint, ceramics, emery, filling, and metallurgy industries. Quartz is generally produced by the open mining method. Quartz, which has almost no cover on it, is subjected to triage after being detonated using explosive material. Clean and high-quality ones are hand-picked and stocked.
Fe2O3 grade at the end of grinding is reduced by ore preparation methods. Sometimes the crushed and extracted quartz is washed with water to make it cleaner. Quartz crystals used in the optics and electronics industry are required to contain 99.99% SiO2.
Quartz is commonly found as a gangue mineral in fault zones, fissures, filaments, and ore deposits. Quartz is an important input to the glass, ceramic, detergent, filling material, and filter industry. While the production of quartz crystals continues in the form of hand-picking, quartz production from the fleets is made by the open-pit mining method. Crushed quartz is washed with water if necessary. It is brought to the desired size and quality by grinding and applying ore preparation methods.
Quartz, a defining component of marble, granite, and other felsic igneous rocks, is a common component of schist, gneiss, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks. The chemical structure of this prismatic hexagonal crystal, also known as quartz, quartz, consists of silicon and oxygen. Quartz crystal can form in all climatic conditions and is resistant to chemical and mechanical weathering. Although the quartz mineral does not dissolve, it only dissolves in hydrofluoric acid. The quartz crystal, which is formed as a result of the decomposition of rich igneous, metamorphic rocks and contains iron oxide, has pink, red, and brown colors.
Pure quartz, generally called rock crystal or clear quartz can be colorless and transparent or translucent, depending on the type and amount of impurities in it. Quartz crystallized in the hexagonal system can be found in nature in crystalline or amorphous (amorphous) form. Quartz, in itself, is divided into two groups as coarse crystalline and cryptocrystalline. The large crystal group contains milk quartz, amethyst, blue quartz, pink (rose) quartz varieties.
The quartz group belonging to the cryptocrystalline (microcrystalline quartz) group are usually translucent or opaque and are known as Onyx, Chalcedony (chalcedony), sedimentary stone, agate, agate, sard tripoli, carnelian, chrysoprase, jasper, flint, heliotrope, chert, and novaculite. Stones varying in color from pale pink to rose red are pink (rose) quartz, bright green ones are Green Quartz, pale yellow to brownish ones are citrine Quartz, white ones are Milky Quartz, violet-colored ones are amethyst, translucent colored ones that alternate between brown and gray are also called smoky quartz.
Technical Properties of Quartz
Quartz, an unfolded metamorphic rock composed almost entirely of sand grains, is formed when a mineral-rich sandstone is altered by the heat, pressure, and chemical activity of metamorphism. Quartz, one of the hardest minerals in nature, is used in all kinds of jewelry, especially rings and necklaces. It is resistant to both mechanical and chemical wear. It is mostly mined in Brazil and Madagascar worldwide.
Quartz stone is one of the most common natural stones in the world and the widest usage network. It is generally white in color. However, pink and purple colored stones are also common. Smoked and smoke-colored stones are much more expensive as they are rare. It is also the name of a group of stones. There are also common stones such as amethyst and citrine in the quartz stone group. Apart from this, there are varieties such as mountain crystal and milky quartz.
The vast majority occur in and around volcanic rocks. The two elements that make up its structure are oxygen and silicon. Brazil is one of the countries where it is widely extracted. Other countries where it has reserves include America, China, and India. Quartz is one of the most popular stone groups worldwide. It needs to be kept in long-term positions and cleaned. Otherwise, people close to the stone that attracts negative energies may be exposed to the same effects. Stones that run out of energy can be easily cleaned by leaving them under the ground overnight instead of being thrown away.
Quartz stones, which are kept under the ground for 24 hours, can then be used with the same energy density. It is also used in making ceramics apart from jewelry, jewelry, and alternative medicine. Various cleaning products and toothpaste also contain traces of quartz stone. The use of this special stone, which is believed to have both magnetic and metaphysical effects, dates back to the first ages. It is hexagonal prism-shaped.
The meaning of quartz stone is power and freedom. For hundreds of years, it has been known as the ‘Strength Stone’ in many parts of the world and it has been believed to give strength to people both physically and spiritually. It got the name ‘quartz’ because it has a crystal structure. The benefits to human health vary according to the type. At the same time, it affects people’s spiritual world and makes it easier to overcome certain psychological problems. It reduces the complaints of those who have difficulty focusing. It is one of the most energetic stones.
When used by direct contact with the skin, it keeps away from malicious people. These special stones, which make people feel much stronger and fitter, enable individuals to be more emotionally balanced. It purifies people from emotions such as anger and jealousy. People with constant headache complaints can get rid of their pain with quartz stone. It is used in all areas of life because it prevents the spread of radiation.
The Usage Areas of Quartz
Although the usage areas of quartz are constantly expanding, it cannot be used effectively in the glass and electronics industry since it must be at the level of impurity for the use of this stone in some sectors. However, serious studies are being carried out for the purification of quartz crystal (reducing the iron ratio to the range of 0.01-0.1%) for its use in many areas.
Among the usage areas of quartz, it is used in electronics, detergent, ceramics, paint, refractory and metallurgy, gas concrete (Ytong) production, ferrochrome production, iron, and steel industry, filling material, filter industry, synthetic and artificial treatments. Especially with the discovery of this feature of quartz stones with piezoelectric properties, the use of quartz brand watches also stands out as a remarkable detail. It is also widely used in product sets such as countertops, tables, coffee tables, sinks, and tubs in kitchens and bathrooms.
The most important point to know when using a quartz product is; If any debris and dust formations are observed on an item or material made of quartz stone, it would be the best behavior in terms of health to immediately remove that item from use and remove it from the living area. The reason is; As a result of the researches and studies, it has been concluded that quartz sand (silica), which is a type of silica, can cause diseases and diseases that are dangerous for human health, and that quartz sand contains carcinogenic substances.
Diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, lung cancer, and scleroderma have occurred due to silica dust. Even short-term breathing of particles in silica sand triggers lung-related diseases. At this point, when buying material or product made of quartz stone, it is of great benefit to turn to well-known brands.
Quartz stone, which is used by different sectors, is also frequently used in homes for decoration purposes. It is seen in kitchen and bathroom counters, counters, laboratories, and workplaces. Oxygen and silicon elements form the structure of quartz stone, the majority of which is formed in and around volcanic rocks. Other countries with reserves include the United States, China, and India. Quartz, which approaches the hardness of diamond, which is 10 Mohs on the Mohs hardness scale, with 7 Mohs hardness, meets the needs of different sectors thanks to this feature.
Quartz, which has been used in the field of a treatment since ancient times, is among the natural stones used for therapeutic purposes today. Quartz stone, which has a natural energy, is especially known to destroy negative energy. Quartz, which collects and spreads positive energy to the environment it is in, is also effective in making the person think positively. Quartz stone, which is also recommended for those who have difficulty in concentration and focus, reduces these complaints. Quartz, which is one of the stones with the highest energy, ensures to stay away from malicious people when it comes into direct contact with the skin.
Quartz, which makes you feel stronger and more energetic, allows individuals to be more emotionally balanced. It also keeps negative emotions such as anger, jealousy, and anger away. Those who have headaches will not have such a problem as long as they carry the quartz stone with them. Among the properties of quartz stone, there is also the ability to relax the digestive system and to easily remove the gases in the stomach.
Quartz is also frequently preferred as kitchen countertops and bathroom countertops. Quartz countertop models are produced by the world’s most famous countertop brands. Quartz manufacturers offer stylish, robust, and hygienic countertops for kitchens and bathrooms. At least 93% of quartz countertops are made suitable for use by compressing quartz with a small amount of polyester resin binder or white cement binder pigments.
Quartz countertops, which show high scratch and abrasion resistance thanks to the mineral with a hardness of 7 Mohs, are not scratched by metal or similar materials and show high wear resistance for a lifetime even in areas with intense circulation. Quartz countertop models with high bending and impact resistance do not easily crack or break during operations such as cutting or transportation.
Technical Properties of Diamond
Diamond, the most valuable and sought-after gemstone, is a mineral whose chemical composition is carbon and crystallizes in the cubic system. Here, each carbon atom is surrounded by four carbons and is bonded by strong covalent bonds, sharing its outer electrons. This structure gives the mineral its unique properties. On the other hand, lonsdaleite, a rare mineral with completely different properties, occurs with other arrangements of carbon atoms.
Diamond is the hardest mineral and is transparent over a wide range of the spectrum. The diamond is actually colorless, but diamonds showing all the colors of the rainbow are also found. These are very rare and very valuable. Throughout history, these rare colored diamonds have attracted the attention of kings and rulers, and owning these invaluable stones has become a symbol of power. Those interested in colored diamonds include Mongol sultans in India, King Louis XIV of France, Russian Tsars, and English Kings.
The light coming into the diamond is absorbed by the electrons in the shells of the ions in the crystal lattice. Each electron shell of an atom has certain quantum energy, and the energy of the outer electron shell is greater than that of the inner shells. When the field energy of the crystal lattice is superposed to the energy order of a single atom as a whole, the energy levels in which the electrons are contained appear. They are separated from each other by prohibited zones.
If the light has enough energy to move some electrons from one energy level to another, it is absorbed and coloration occurs. The energy absorption of an electron causes it to move to the outer band. If the amount of absorbed energy is sufficient, the electron moves to the conduction band, where it circulates freely under the influence of the external electric field, independent of the atomic nucleus.
Radiation absorption is related to the transition of electrons to the higher energy band, and radiation removal is associated with the partial or complete return of electrons to their original state. In diamond, the energy difference between these two bands is much greater than that found in visible light. Visible light does not have enough energy to excite the diamond’s valence-bond electrons. Therefore, a pure and perfect diamond does not absorb light and is colorless.
The coloration in diamond is due to a defect in the structure, impurity, or both. Non-paired electrons, which produce color by the absorption of light, can sometimes be found on a foreign element or in a defective crystal. An impurity or structural defect can create an energy level locally between these two bands. If the energy differences between this energy level and the conductivity and valence bands are in visible light, coloration occurs.
Thus, light energy stimulated an electron, providing an energy transition, causing the electron to transition to a higher energy level. This is the formation of coloration by the absorption of some of the waves that make up the light. In other words, if the energies of the violet and blue part of the light passing through the diamond are used, they are eliminated from the white light and the rest are wavelengths that give the dark yellow color.
Impurities can lead to an inaccuracy in the arrangement or the absence of atoms where they should be. These are called “color centers”. If an electron is missing in the lattice where an electron pair should be found, it is called a positive gap. This ion has an electron gain force, where a color center is formed. The simplest situation encountered in diamond is the color centers formed by the lack of a carbon atom in the structure. In diamond, most of the color centers found are associated with the nitrogen contained in. N can be found in isolation in the structure and also in groups of two, three, and four atoms.
N3s from communities form color centers. Others do not absorb light but participate in the formation of complex color centers. In addition, when nitrogen-containing diamonds are heated, an H center is formed. Especially the H3 and H4 centers are directly related to the coloration, and the color center occurs when the isolated N atoms remain closed in a vacuum. This is called the N-V center.
The Usage Areas of Diamond
When we think of diamonds, we immediately think of them as a very precious stone, right? It is actually the correct answer, but besides its use as a jewel, diamond has other uses. Actually, the word diamond comes from the Greek word Adamas, which means indestructible. In the following paragraphs, you will find information on what a diamond is, how it is formed, how its value is determined, where it is used, and where it is found.
Diamond is a gemstone composed of crystallized pure carbon. It was first discovered by the French chemist Lavoisier that diamond is pure carbon. Lavoisier burned the diamond and when he saw that the gas produced was only carbon dioxide, he concluded that the diamond was carbon. It is the most important of the precious stones in nature and the hardest and most durable of the known objects. Its density is 3,51 g/cm3.
During the geological changes that the world went through, some of the carbons melted and crystallized under extreme heat and pressure and became diamonds. Diamonds form in the Earth’s mantle, about 150 to 160 km below the ground. It is thought to occur with earthquakes and volcanic movements in the earth’s crust.
It is sometimes thought that diamonds are formed as a result of the metamorphosis of coal. But this is not true. Because diamonds are much older than land plants. Since the source material of coal is the land plants, it is clear that diamonds do not consist of the coal. In addition, coal is almost never seen 3-3.5 km below the ground. Therefore, there is no coal at the depths where diamonds are formed.
Diamonds are used both as ornamental stone and as an industrial tool. For example, a black diamond called carbonado enables the drilling of hard rocks. Diamonds cannot be used as a precious stone or as an industrial tool in the form they come out of the soil. Each stone is polished after cleaning and breaking into pieces.
Diamonds are usually colorless. But it can also be in pink, yellow, blue, green and black. The most valuable diamonds are the rare colorless or pale blue ones. Green, pink, yellow diamonds are worthless ornamental stones. Very rarely, brown, milky-white diamonds are also found. Diamonds used in industry are black, brown, or leaden.
The value of a diamond as an ornament is not measured solely by its color or size. The true value of a diamond depends on how it was carved (cut into diamonds). Today, the center of diamond cutting and diamond trading is in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The weight of a diamond is measured in a unit called a carat. 1 carat is approximately 200 milligrams or 0.2 grams. The diamond is not very large as it is usually found in the form of fallout in kimberlite rocks, which is a volcanic tuff. The largest diamond ever found is the “Cullinan apple”, weighing 3106.75 carats (about 620 grams), discovered in South Africa in 1904.
The countries where diamonds come out the most are India, Brazil, and South Africa. The richest diamond deposits are in South Africa. Because three-quarters of the world’s diamond production is provided from this region. Approximately 1 ton of diamonds are obtained in the world in a year, and 99% of this is used as bits in drilling and cutting tools. Today, its consumption is quite high, especially due to oil drilling.
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