Diamond is one of the hardest known materials in the world and has a high financial value. It is one of the modifications of the carbon element. Diamond is formed at a certain temperature and pressure. The places where the formation takes place are depths close to the earth’s core. The most distinctive feature of diamond melting at 3547 degrees Celsius is its hardness. The diamond with a hardness level of 10 is the substance with the highest hardness rate. So how does a diamond look like?
Diamond is a crystalline mineral composed of pure carbon. Therefore it is in a crystal form and thus looks like a crystal. Although there are diamonds of different colors, they are usually found in the colorless form. In addition, it is one of the most popular jewelry items as jewelry because of its brightness, hardness, and perfect refraction of light. Being an excellent conductor, diamond is also a heat reflector and the most transparent material.
What Is a Diamond? How Does It Look Like?
Diamond is one of the hardest materials known. It is not affected by high doses of radiation and does not trigger the immune system. In addition to these, diamond, which is an excellent conductor, is a good heat reflector and the best transparent material. Because of these great features; It is also a very useful material in civil engineering, nuclear engineering, and medicine. The youngest of diamonds is about 900 million years old. In addition, diamond is a valuable mineral as it is rare in the world.
Diamond, which is the allotrope of the carbon atom (the arrangement of the atoms in a different geometry in space), is very difficult to form. The environment required for its occurrence is high temperature and high pressure in the underground crust… It is possible to create such an environment in the laboratory environment. Such an environment has already been produced since 1950. With the HTHP (High-Pressure High Temperature) method, a relatively low-cost diamond is produced by creating a high temperature and high-pressure environment. But in this method the efficiency is low… (stones can be small and pale in color.)
If we come to the main part; There is another method that has been developed for 3 years to further purify diamonds. This is called the method called “Chemical Vapor Deposition Method”. In a vacuum environment, the diamond seed is placed on the bottom of the nail thinner (carbon plasma) by exposing it to microwave rays, methane, and hydrogen gas accumulates carbon between the plasmas and allows the carbon to bond and diamond production occurs. This method developed by IIa Technologies has produced 30% and 40% cheaper diamonds. According to the data, 1500 tons of diamonds were used in the industry in 2014 and 99% of them are artificial.
Of course, if we were to brainstorm; The widespread use of artificial diamond production and the fact that it can be obtained with less cost will increase the availability of diamonds. So much so that it is obvious that diamond is the best in its field while talking about its advantages. Thus, we can see artificial diamonds more in other sectors where their features stand out, not in the jewelry sector, where their features are insignificant.
General Properties of the Diamond
Some substances in the world have a very important value for human beings. These substances, which attract attention in every region of the world with their valuable structure, have a very high financial value. One of such important substance is diamond. Although diamond is a natural stone, it is shown by most people as the most precious stone found on earth. Besides the monetary value of the diamond, its interesting properties are also one of the factors that cause this kind of evaluation. Diamond, one of the most precious stones in the world, is among the rarest materials on earth. Being extremely rare in nature, diamond is also among the hardest materials in the world.
So much so that this is a scientifically proven situation. According to the internationally accepted Mohs Hardness Scale, the hardness value of the diamond is 10. So much so that this scale is listed from 1 to 10. This means that diamond is among the hardest materials in the world according to internationally accepted values. Quartz material known as the hardest stones in the world is 7, and precious stones such as Sapphire, Ruby, and Topaz score 8 and 9 points according to this scale. When compared with these hard stones, it is clearly understood how hard a diamond is.
Diamond, one of the most precious stones in the world, is closely related to elements such as carbon and graphite. Diamond is one of the two modifications of the carbon element together with graphite, which is known to exist in quite different parts of the universe and is very important for the continuity of life. Like most gemstones available today, the diamond means indispensable jewelry for women. In addition, the diamond stone is a raw material that has absolutely no alternative in terms of today’s modern industry. In the modern industry, the hardness of diamond is used frequently. The function of diamond here is to cut very hard stones or materials and to benefit from the processing of these materials. The hardness of the diamond is used in the modern industry as cutting tools.
Besides, diamond is also used in the processing of very different products. Since thousands of years ago, when its existence and feature was known, diamond material has been popular with people and can be used for different purposes according to the situation. Use for different purposes did not have any effect on the diamond’s feature of being one of the most precious stones in the world. Lavoisier, a French scientist, made researches on the diamond, one of the hardest stones in the world, and found that diamond is made of pure carbon. When looking at the melting point of the diamond, which is a member of the most precious natural stones class, the temperature of 3547 has astonished scientists. The diamond stone can be in different colors, not in one color. Among these colors, there are colors such as pink, blue, yellow, brown, and red.
Composed of mostly carbon, diamond has the ability to scratch all minerals in nature with its hardness. Diamond, which has a hardness of 10 in the Mohs Hardness Level, which is the international hardness scale, is a material with excellent durability. Diamond is also capable of refracting light quite well. When the structure of the diamond is examined, it is better understood how interesting this substance is. So much so that foreign atoms are very few in the structure of diamond. In this context, it has been understood that there is only 1 foreign atom for every 10,000 atoms in the structure of diamonds. In some diamonds, this ratio can be as high as 1 foreign atom per 100,000 atoms. Diamond, which is among the most valuable and interesting materials in the world, is found mostly in Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa, South America, and Australia.
Diamonds are formed by crystallization layer by layer on top of the tetrahedral core structure. We can compare this to the structure of an onion or the formation of a tree turtle. This formation causes growth lines to form within the diamonds. As a result of the diamonds being cut, parallel growth lines may appear. Rough diamonds are generally found in nature in the form of octahedrons. General properties of the diamond include the following:
Diamond is the hardest metal known in the world, taking the value 10 in the Mohs Hardness Scale, which classifies the hardness degrees of minerals, from 1 to 10. The mines in this scale are listed in such a way that they can draw the mines that are lower than them. Mines at a lower level cannot draw the higher ones.
The density of the diamond is approximately 3.5 g / cm3. Density, which is the distinguishing feature of materials, also shows its effect on the diamond, allowing a calculation to distinguish it from similar ones. For example, while it is difficult to distinguish the stones obtained as a result of processing cubic zirconia (5.5 g / cm3) from a diamond with the naked eye, a simple mathematical result can be used to distinguish the diamond from cubic zircon by using volume and density values.
- Refractive index
The diamond mine has a high refractive index. As light travels in all environments except space, it is exposed to a certain resistance depending on the type of environment. This resistance causes light to create various optical phenomena (reflection, refraction, diffusion). The refractive index value of the diamond takes values in the range of 2.4175-2.4178 according to the wavelength of the light passing through it. Substances slow down the light passing through them thanks to their refractive indices. Thanks to its high refractive index in diamond, it slows down the light considerably. Paying attention to the apparent occurrence of optical phenomena related to the refractive index during the processing of the diamond, processing (cutting) forms are preferred accordingly. While explaining the dispersion of the diamond, which is a cut form of diamond, more information will be given on this subject.
- Some Other Features
Some other properties of diamond with nonmetallic properties can be listed as follows:
- Its melting point is 3547 ° C.
- It burns at 850 ° C in the air.
- It turns into graphite at 1500 ° C in an airless environment.
- The thermal conductivity value of the diamond, which is a good thermal conductor, is 600-1500 Watt / m Kelvin.
- Diamonds other than boron-doped blue diamond (semiconductor) do not conduct electricity.
- Diamond does not like water (hydrophobic) but loves oil.
- Not affected by acids, diamonds are only affected by molten salts, such as potassium nitrate.
Physical Properties of Diamond That Affects How It Looks Like
Diamond, a nonmetal mineral, melts at 3500 degrees, burns at 850 degrees in the air, turns into graphite at 1500 degrees in an airless environment. It is associated with carbon and graphite. One of the modifications of carbon is diamond and the other is graphite. It is a crystalline mineral composed of pure carbon. It shows similar properties with coal due to its relationship with carbon. It is separated from coal according to the way the carbon atoms are arranged. It forms a carbon tetrafluoride compound at 750 degrees with fluorine.
Diamond does not form a compound with other halogens. It is an excellent electrical insulator. It is the substance with the highest thermal conductivity. The most prominent physical property of diamond is its hardness. Diamond, the hardest mineral, has a hardness level of 10 on the Mohs scale, which is the mineralogy hardness scale. It cannot be drawn with any tool or stone. A diamond can only be drawn with a diamond. High hardness can even scratch rubies, sapphires, and emeralds.
Diamond is of high purity. The mineral with the least inclusions defining the carbon stain and inclusions in it is diamond. These inclusions are common in other hard and precious stones. These traces of carbon are found in real diamonds. Synthetic or artificial diamonds do not have these marks. The diamond, which is extremely hard and has an atomic cavity octahedral cleavage, has fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It crystallizes in an isometric system. The crystal system of the diamond is cubic. The crystal form is usually octahedra. It is rarely found in massive crystal form. Diamonds are rarely found in formations. About 250 tons of soil may need to be sifted or treated for a one-carat diamond. For this reason, mining is very difficult. Each diamond takes millions of years to form. In other words, natural diamonds used today are millions of years old. It is located deep in the earth’s crust under extremely hot and high pressure.
Diamond is formed by the crystallization of liquid carbon atoms under high temperatures and pressures. It can rise to the upper layers or the earth by volcanic movements. Diamond formations are found in kimberlite rocks or in volcanic chimneys “olivine, pyrope, and phlogopite” as well as in conglomerates, alluvial placers, and meteorites. It is not affected by acids, does not darken and deteriorate in climate changes. The diamond that shines perfectly; It can be found in colorless, transparent, translucent, matte, white, blue, blue-white, lavender-blue, red, gray, yellow, brown, orange, pink, green, black.
The brilliance of the diamond is due to its “reactive index” ratio. This ratio is 2,417, which is quite high compared to other minerals. These proportions are 1.77 in ruby and sapphire and 1.56 in emerald. The diamond slows down the light it contains and displays a play of light on it. The diamond turns its play into a feast with light. Namely; It presents the light in a festive mood with the features of surface reflections called “shining”, refraction by slowing down the light it contains, and dividing it into the color spectrum by giving out the light called “dispersion”. In other words, it separates the white light into its colors.
Due to these properties, it can shine at high levels even in dim and low light sources such as candlelight. In its raw form, diamond is mainly used in jewelry and ornaments. It has limited use in industry to take advantage of its hardness. There are three types of diamonds used in industry as ballas, bolt, and carbonado. There are also synthetic diamonds that are used in both jewelry and industry. Synthetic diamonds are produced artificially as a result of various chemical and physical processes. The unit of measure used in weighing the diamond and determining its weight is called “carat”. 1 carat is equal to 200 milligrams. So 1 carat is 0.2 grams.
The Crystal Structure of Diamond
Diamond is one of the most interesting items with its expensive price and beautiful appearance. The name of the diamond is thought to come from the ancient Greek word “Adamos”, which means “crushed” or “pressed”. The diamond, a beautiful substance, is also one of the oldest substances to exist. The age of ore rocks with diamonds varies between 50 million and 1600 million years. This is an answer to those who ask how many years a diamond is formed.
To understand the chemical structure of the diamond, we need to know the carbon atom at a basic level. A neutral carbon (C) atom contains 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons. The electronic configuration of the neutral carbon atom is 1s22s22p2. We see that the 2p orbital is missing 4 in the sequence. So carbon needs 4 electrons to complete itself. When it forms a covalent bond, carbon binds to 4 atoms. Diamond consists of a series of carbon covalently bonded to each other in four ways. In other words, the element that makes up the structure of diamond is the element carbon.
Why Diamonds Look Like This: The Bonding Property of the Carbon Atom
The number of valence electrons of carbon in the 14th group (4A) of the periodic table is 4. The carbon atom can make a total of four bonds (covalent) using four valence electrons. A carbon atom can make single, double, and triple bonds with another carbon atom. Unlike other atoms, carbon atoms can be linked together in infinite numbers to form a large number of straight-chain, branched, or cyclic compounds.
The bond formed between carbon atoms is more stable than other bonds. It is the triple bond with the highest energy among the single, double and triple bonds between carbon atoms. The energy required to break this bond is greater than the others. Allotropes of the Carbon Element Single bonds are sigma bond, one of the double bonds is sigma the other is pi, one of the triple bonds is sigma, and two are pi bonds. Atoms belonging to the same element can come together in different numbers and sequences to form different substances. This event is called allotropy, and substances are called the allotrope of the atom. Diamond, graphite, and fullerenes are the allotrope of the carbon atom.
C atoms are linked together in a two-dimensional plane to form large, flat plates stacked on top of each other. It is a good lubricant. It conducts electricity. It is used as an electrode in battery and electrolysis.
It has a crystalline structure. Each carbon atom is bound to 4 other carbon atoms. It does not conduct electricity and has a low desire to react. It has a high melting and boiling point. Used as a glass cutter, stone cutter. It is valuable because of its optical properties.
This structure was called fullerene because it resembles a soccer ball and certain geodesic domes. It is obtained by condensing graphite by evaporating it with a laser. Fullerene with the formulas C12, C60, C70, C74, C82 has been discovered.
It is a cylindrical form of two-dimensional layers made of hexagonal carbon rings called graphene layer by curling like a paper. The length of the nanotubes is 100 million times their diameter. Nanotubes can form strong and conductive fibers.
Is It Possible to Tell Whether a Diamond Is Real or Not by the Way It Looks Like
From the past to the present, more than ten tests have been found for the authenticity of gemstones, and some of them have come to the present and helped inform us. So, how is diamond understood? What are these tests that can help us answer the question?
- Water Test
This simple test can be used to find out if the diamond is genuine. A normal-sized glass is taken and filled with water. The diamond is carefully dropped into the glass. If the gemstone sinks to the bottom, it is real. If it floats in the middle, under, or on the surface of the water, it is fake. A real diamond has a high density, so the water test will show if your stone matches that density. Thus, the first practical answer to the question “how to recognize a fake diamond?” is determined with the water test.
- Fog Test
For the fog test, the diamond or ring is held between two fingers and blown with one breath. Due to the moisture and heat in your finger, a light fog should form on the diamond. If this mist dissipates immediately, the diamond is real. If the fog takes a few seconds to clear, it’s probably fake.
- Test Made by Heating the Stone
The diamonds are made from incredibly strong material and are therefore highly resistant to high temperatures. To test this, it is filled with a glass of cold water. Pliers or fireproof gloves are used to hold the stone. Gently heat the pliers or mitt for about 40 seconds, then drop the stone directly into cold water. If the stone is broken, it is not a real diamond as it is made of weaker components. If it were a real diamond, it would not react to heat. This method used tests the quality and strength of the stone. Due to the rapid expansion and contraction of the heat, weak materials such as glass or cubic zirconium will crack and break. As diamonds are one of the strongest materials on the planet, they will withstand such heat tests. The heat dissipates quickly and the diamond is not affected by the change in temperature.
- UV Light Test
Although this method is not suitable for giving a definite result, it can be an ideal initial test. The diamond is placed under UV light and its reaction is monitored. Most diamonds emit a blue glow, but not all. Some diamonds do not glow under UV light. Therefore, if the stone does not shine, the results do not necessarily indicate it is a fake diamond. Since this test is imprecise, it is most logical for a diamond expert or jeweler to use their advanced equipment to test the stone.
- Newspaper Test
When the brilliance of the diamond is seen, its ability to bend and refract the light can be seen. This can be seen with the naked eye when the light hits the angled surfaces on the diamond’s lower half. When a diamond does it well and shines brightly, it is close to reality. Non-diamond stones such as Cubic Zirconia do not refract light. For this reason, they will have less brightness. In order to test the breaking property of the diamond, the stone is placed straight down on a page with a lot of writing in a newspaper. Make sure that the lighting is bright and that no objects or people cast a shadow on the diamond. If the letters of the newspaper can then be read easily, the diamond is fake. If the diamond is real, it refracts the light in the text from a straight line in different directions. Because of the refraction of this light, the inscriptions cannot be seen clearly through the diamond and therefore the letters cannot be read.
- Point Test
If there is no newspaper to use, the point test is an excellent alternative. A piece of white paper is put on a flat surface and a small dot is drawn with a pencil. The diamond is placed on it with the flat side down. Look at the sharp end of the diamond on the paper. If a circular reflection is seen inside the stone, the diamond is fake. If you cannot see the point or reflection in the stone then the diamond is real. Because a real diamond has strong refractive qualities, the light will stretch in different directions rather than in a straight line. That’s why no letters or dots can be seen with a natural, genuine diamond.
- Glow Test
Although refraction is related to the directions reflected by the light; Reflection makes a statement regarding the quantity and quality of the light reflected from the stone. The glow test does not require any equipment other than your eyes. The diamond in question is kept under a normal lamp and monitored. A true diamond reflects white light very well and provides extraordinary sparkle. Diamonds also reflect colored light or fire spectacularly. If you compare a real diamond with a fake diamond, you can see that there is a big difference in the sparkle of white and colored light given by the real diamond.
- Inspection by a Diamond Expert
A diamond expert can easily obtain information about gems and jewelry with a special magnifying glass. When using the magnifier, it looks for blemishes and imperfections in the diamond. While a fake diamond can be built perfectly, a real diamond will have minor flaws.
- Examining Using a Thermal Conductivity Probe
In addition to a magnifying glass, experts often use a thermal conductivity probe for tests as well. This tool is needed to determine the thermal conductivity of a stone. Since diamonds are effective heat conductors, the stone dissipates heat rapidly after it heats up. If the diamond conducts heat more slowly, it is not real. However, it should be noted that some fake stones, like diamonds, generally have an even heat distribution and can leave this test inconclusive.
- Measurement Using Electrical Conductivity
Detection of a fake diamond can also be done through the electrical conductivity test performed by a jeweler. Diamonds generate electricity better than other stones. An electrical tester will give a clear indication of whether the stone is real or whether it was created by the laboratory.
- Examining Using a Microscope
Due to the increasing presence of synthetic stones in the market, it is very important to have other tests done in terms of fraud. The tools used in these tests can quickly determine whether the diamond is real or fake. Examines a jeweler’s stone in detail with 1200x magnification on a power microscope. At this magnification level, one can see minor flaws in real diamonds and determine that they are natural. Because diamonds by their nature have minor errors. There is no perfect diamond.
- X-Ray Examination (Laboratory Test)
The inside of a stone is sent to a professional diamond lab on testing for a review of its molecular properties. X-ray machines are machines capable of detecting whether the stone has a radio molecular structure or a radio-opaque molecular structure. Finally, it should be noted that the scratch test performed to determine whether the diamonds are fake or not should not be overlooked. Scratch testing is a widely used technique aimed at determining the hardness of a gemstone mineral. The test involves scratching the gemstone to see if it can be scratched. However, like a diamond formed with very strong materials, fake materials such as cubic Zirconia and Moissanite, which are synthetically encountered, are also very resistant to scratches. For these reasons, the scratch test is not accurate. It makes more sense to use other tests such as the thermal conductivity test or inspection of the diamond with a professional magnifying glass tool.
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