Thousands, millions, and even billions of years ago, the extreme heat and pressure that formed over 200 km below the earth turned pure carbon (C) into colorless diamond crystals. Diamond is a monovalent mineral consisting of a single element (carbon element). Diamond is not very rare, contrary to what is known. I will explain why in the following paragraphs. First of all, let’s talk about the history of the diamond.
Volcanic movements began to bring the diamond to the surface of the Earth. Slits that provide volcanic motions, also known as kimberlite slits, pushed the diamond to the surface and this journey caused the heat of the diamond to decrease until it came to earth. Today, the areas where diamond mines are located are mainly areas where volcanic activity has been observed in the past as well as gravel deposits and ocean floor. Today, most diamonds are found in Africa, Russia, Australia, and Canada.
The history of the diamond goes back to ancient times. Some say that diamond has existed since the dinosaurs, while others point to it earlier. This journey of history made a simple element a very precious stone. The diamond, which crystallized under high pressure and heat and at the extreme point of the earth, maintained this formation until the lava on the volcano brought this precious diamond to the surface of the earth. Diamonds, which have been in human life for thousands of years and have different usage areas, contain important moments of history and much more. In the early ages, diamonds were separated from other mines by their luster. Diamonds have been loaded with different meanings throughout history.
It is believed that diamonds were discovered in India during 800-1000 BC. Later in 327 BC, Alexander the Great, King of the Macedonian Empire, brought the first diamonds from India to Europe. The diamonds used in jewelry for the first time in 1074 also embellished the crown of a Hungarian queen with diamonds. Although developing tools are used today, it is still very difficult and laborious to find diamonds. Geologists are looking for these precious stones found in nature from everywhere in the frozen tundra of Siberia and Canada to the hot deserts of Africa and the ocean bottom.
In 1375, the diamond was cut for the first time. This cutting technique, called dot cutting, has brought about the emergence of diamonds for the first time. The dot cut means that the diamond is processed into a standard shape. The diamonds obtained by dot cut in 1477 were combined with solitaire rings. It was presented by Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, to Mary of Burgundy when he was proposing marriage. Thus, the tradition of choosing diamonds in marriage began with royalties. In 1520, a diamond cut called Rose Cut, which resembles buds opened, was discovered.
In 1919, round cut diamonds, which are still widely used today, were discovered. The round cut is of great interest due to the optical properties of the cut, which can reflect light well. Diamond embraces many other minerals and colors in trace sizes during its journey to the Earth’s surface. Extra white diamonds are very rare and are the most expensive. Most diamonds contain brown or yellow colors. Yellow and brown diamonds are therefore cheaper. However, the other colored diamonds, blue, red, orange, pink and green diamonds are quite expensive and their collections are not more than 100.
This beautiful and popular precious mineral may seem like a delicate glass to the eye, but it is the hardest natural material in the world. Under extreme conditions, a diamond only cuts or breaks a diamond mine, although under severe conditions it may be possible to burn or break it. The word diamond is derived from the word Adamas or Adamantinos in the ancient Greek language which means that it cannot be domesticated, easily disintegrated. This shows the view of diamonds in the early ages of diamonds.
Diamond being the hardest material in nature makes it also suitable for industrial use. It is used as a cutting tool in lathe, milling, drill, saw and many other machines. According to the experts, 80% of all diamonds in the world are used for industrial purposes, only 20% of them are used in precious metals and precious jewelry sector.
Diamonds May Not Be as Rare as We Think
Diamonds may not be as rare as we thought, but this research report by Johns Hopkins University doesn’t mean that jewelers around you will get big discounts. The process of the formation of diamonds in the depths, in the depths of the world, maybe more frequent than we thought! This thesis was written in Nature Communications in an article written by geochemist Dimitri A. Sverjensky and Ph.D. student Fang Huang. The results of the research report reveal a ‘new theory of the frequency of diamond formation’, but this does not imply that jewelry diamonds can be obtained more easily and brought to a level that can be presented to the consumer.
First of all, the amount of diamonds located close to the surface of the earth depends on magma eruptions, which rarely take them out of the depths from which they were formed and are still rarely occurring. In addition, the word ‘diamond’ mentioned in this scientific research is the ‘diamond that can only be seen with a microscope’ which cannot be seen with the naked eye. In other words, the concept of ‘diamond’ that forms diamond rings and the ‘diamond’ concept is actually independent concepts.
Using a chemistry model, Sverjensky and Huang discovered that these gemstones could be formed by a natural chemical reaction, simpler than the two basic processes known so far for diamond formation. Specifically, the method they find (although not yet tested with real materials) shows that diamonds can be formed in an extremely acidic environment during the interaction between stone and water.
According to the common belief that until today, diamonds are formed in the liquid movement that occurs as a result of oxidation of methane gas or chemical reduction in carbon dioxide content. Oxidation causes more oxidation or electron recovery. ‘Reduction’ means lower oxidation reactions. These two reactions together form the reaction type known as ‘redox’ reactions. Sverjensky says it has always been difficult to explain why the Redox reactions occur, as someone who works in the Earth and Planetary Sciences department of the university.
“For the reactions to take place, different types of liquids circulating between the stones must encounter different oxidation conditions in different environments.” With this new research, it was found that water can produce diamonds in connection with the decrease in pH. Sverjensky says: The water circulating between the different stone types becomes more acidic, making it suitable for diamond production. Sverjensky also says: “This discovery is just one of many findings that have changed scientists’ perception of how widely diamonds can exist. As research increases, it becomes possible to find diamonds in many different rock types. I think people will agree with me on this: there is an environment that allows many more diamonds to be discovered. ”
For now, no one allows the possibility of an abundance of diamonds, but according to Sverjensky, scientists continue to work on this topic through chemical models. We cannot physically discover the possible ‘abundance of diamonds’ 150 to 200 kilometers below the ground. Of course, temperatures ranging from 1650 to 2000 Fahrenheit should also be taken into account. It should be noted that the maximum distance to the ground is 12 or 14 kilometers.
If this scientific work does not shake the jewelry industry, it will shed light on us to understand the liquid movements taking place in the depths of the world, and thus the carbon cycle taking place in our world … Sverjensky says: “Liquids are the basic connection that will allow us to understand the relationship between shallow points and depths of the Earth. Therefore, they are important.”
The Truth About the Rarity of Diamonds
Diamond is a stone that is available in large quantities to be distributed to everyone who lives on the earth, including children. The main reason for being expensive is that its sales are controlled very strictly. Until the 19th century, diamonds were rare, very expensive and could only be bought by very rich people. However, in the late 19th century, many diamond deposits were discovered in South Africa. With the realization that diamonds were not rare stones, prices would fall rapidly, and in 1888 De Beers Mining formed the diamond cartel.
In the 1880s, Cecil Rhodes, president of De Beers Mining, realized that if he could control diamond production by buying all the diamond deposits in the world, he could sell this stone, which is worthless because it was so abundant, at a very high price. Cecil Rhodes and his successors have successfully completed this commercial plan and have achieved 90% control of the diamond mines in a short time. Being a monopoly, De Beers Mining then started to direct the whole diamond trade and economy with the power they had in their hands.
De Beers knew very well that the other side of the equation, the demand for diamonds, had to be dealt with in order to sell this precious stone, which was abundant, as high as before. The advertising agency N. W. Ayer & Son, in which they received support, set up a large campaign to influence social behavior. Launched in 1914, the campaign’s motto was “Forever”. Diamond ring, presented as a symbol of commitment and love in the campaign, has convinced the masses that it is the most important part of the marriage proposal and created a huge market from nothing.
While it is possible to sell all other jewels 75% – 80% below the price you bought, the same is not the case for diamonds. You can usually return it to the dealer from whom you have documented your purchase, provided you purchase another diamond. So you can’t actually sell your diamonds. The only thing you are allowed to do is to continue the diamond trade. Synthetic diamonds have been produced in the laboratory for nearly ten years. It is almost impossible to separate the synthetic diamond from the real diamond because all conditions in the natural environment can be achieved in the laboratory. Therefore, there is no difference between the synthetic diamond and the natural diamond. Synthetic diamonds have the same physical, chemical and optical properties as natural diamonds.
What Makes Diamond Valuable Beside Its Rarity
The diamond is brilliant. Diamond, one of the most shining stones in the world, slows down the light entering it, allowing us to see many light games on it. With both the reflections on the surface (shoeshine), the refraction by slowing down the light entering it, and the dispersing properties of the color spectrum while reflecting the light entering, diamond creates a feast of light. Therefore, it shines highly even in the weakest light sources. Slowly move your diamond in candlelight or dim light. You will witness the light games on you.
Important Note: The refractive index of the diamond is 2.42. This ratio, which is quite high compared to other minerals, is the main reason for the brightness of the diamond. Ruby is 1.77, Sapphire is 1.77, Emerald is 1.56.
Diamond is resistant. The diamond, which has a hardness of 10 on the Mohs scale, is the hardest mineral on earth. You cannot draw the diamond with any tools or stones. No glass, no knives, no teeth. On the contrary, diamond easily draws ruby, glass, and sapphire. The diamond can only scratch another diamond. The hardness values of some other gemstones are as follows: Ruby: 9, Sapphire: 9, Emerald: 7.5.
Diamond is pure. Diamond is one of the minerals that contain the least inclusions (nature of fingerprints). These inclusions are often observed in emerald, sapphire or ruby. However, diamonds contain them less and become the most transparent stone compared to other stones. Diamond, which is the symbol of transparency and purity, has been associated with values such as trust and quality as the symbol of being like yourself and being unglazed and open. When we say people like diamonds, we actually refer to that person’s transparency and the way it looks.