Rough diamonds were first discovered in India about 2,500 years ago, and many ancient civilizations were fascinated by their appearance and touchable texture. Diamonds were a symbol of power long before they became symbols of love and were often worn by Kings and Princes as talismans when entering battle. With the industrial revolution, the usage areas of diamond have also increased. Thanks to its near-perfect physical and chemical properties, diamond is used in many fields today. So, what are the uses of diamonds?
Diamonds obtained from nature in raw form are classified according to their properties, and those of gem quality are used in the jewelry industry. Diamond is used in jewelry applications by combining it with a precious metal like itself in the jewelry industry. Today, diamonds are used especially in jewelry items such as rings, necklaces, earrings, and brooches. On the other hand, low-quality diamonds are used as abrasives and cutters in the industry due to their hardness.
Matte and black natural diamonds called carbonado are used only in industry, in cutting processes due to their surface hardness. Although carbonado-type diamonds are less valuable than other diamonds, they are diamonds with higher surface hardness. In addition, there are two other types of diamonds, called ballas and bort, which are natural and used in industry. Compared to other types, ballas type diamonds have high toughness and crack propagation resistance, which provides a significant advantage in terms of industrial use.
Looking at the countries that import the rawest diamonds in the world, India ranks first, followed by the European Union, United Arab Emirates, China, and Botswana. Almost 50% import rate of India draws attention. As it can be understood from here, India is the leader of the world’s rough diamond imports and is one of the countries that process rough diamonds. It is among the leading countries in the import of rough diamonds in the European Union member countries.
When we look at the countries that export the most processed diamonds in the world, the European Union countries are in the first place, followed by the United Arab Emirates, Russia, India, and Botswana. European Union countries hold almost 30% of the market share. As it can be understood from here, the European Union countries are the leaders of the world’s processed diamond exports. The export rates of other countries in the world and the United Arab Emirates are also noteworthy. Russia and Botswana are among the countries that both extract and export rough diamonds.
The Usage Areas of Diamond
Dating from ancient times to the present, the diamond is one of the most important ornamental stones sought and used in the jewelry and ornament industry due to its magnificent shine and perfect shine. Diamonds, which are not in jewelry quality, are also used as industrial materials since they are the hardest material that occurs naturally in nature. Diamond is the hardest material known in nature because it is formed by high temperature and pressure, consists of carbon atoms, and is packed in a dense cubic crystal lattice during this formation.
It is also the mineral that insulates electricity very well and conducts heat best. It is known that the brightness of the diamond is very good due to its high refractive index. The vast majority of all gemstones, including diamonds, were formed in the Earth’s mantle at depths of more than 140 kilometers. The largest diamond formations in the world are found in lamprophyres. Lamprophyries are generally known to be obtained by melting in small amounts deep in the mantle.
A diamond tip is used to cut glass and hard objects. So, is this diamond used any different from the expensive ornamental diamond? Is it possible to make expensive diamonds artificially? Diamond is the hardest known mineral. It also has the ability to refract and reflect light. This physical and chemical property of diamond increases its use in industry for cutting and drilling other hard materials. In addition, diamond-coated industrial tools are also used to improve the performance of cutters and semiconductors.
25% of the diamond is used in jewelry making. Today, approximately 75% of the world’s diamond mineral resources are used for industrial purposes, while approximately 25% is used in jewelry making. In order for a diamond to be used as a jewel, its characteristics such as color, cut, clarity, and brilliance are considered. If the diamond from the mine is cloudy in color or the diamond is cracked, these diamonds are reserved for industrial use. If the diamond does not have cracks and turbidity, it is used as a jewel after going through processes such as cutting and polishing.
The production of artificial diamonds has been around for 40 years. Rhinestones are usually created using the high pressure and high-temperature method and the chemical vapor deposition method. The color of rhinestones produced by these methods is mostly light brown and metal may remain in them during the production process. The most important of the production purposes of artificial diamond is to meet the increasing demand in the industry and to produce an alternative to the depleting natural resources.
When the diamonds obtained from nature are examined, those of gem quality are processed appropriately and used as ornamental stones. Diamonds, which are not in the quality of ornamental stones, are used in industry as abrasive and cutting materials due to their high hardness. In the selection of rough diamonds that can be used as jewelry in the jewelry industry, they should be transparent enough, free of cracks, free of impurities, and large enough to be shaped. The parameters which are known as 4C (Cut, Clarity, Color, and Carat) are used to determine the value of the diamond used as jewelry.
It is seen that there are many cutting models for cutting diamonds. The clarity value is divided into several levels. It is seen that the best brightness value is FL and IF. Diamonds and diamonds come in a variety of colors, with the best color value being D. As can be seen, the value of a diamond and the diamond obtained by the appropriate cut depends on the 4C properties. The better the color, clarity, cut, and carat, the more valuable the diamond. When the import and export data of processed diamonds in the world are examined, it is understood that processed diamond is indispensable for the jewelry sector.
The largest diamond deposits appear to be in Botswana and Russia. In particular, India is the country that imports, processes, and exports raw apples and has a high market share in the world market. When the world’s rough diamond mine production and processed diamond trade figures are compared, it is seen that there is a big difference. It is thought that one of the main reasons for this difference stems from the diamonds produced in the laboratory environment.
Features of Diamond That Makes It Useful
Diamond is one of the hardest materials known. It is not affected by high doses of radiation and does not trigger the immune system. Besides, diamond, which is an excellent conductor, is a good heat reflector and the best transparent material. Because of these awesome features; It is also a very useful material in civil engineering, nuclear engineering, and medicine. The youngest of the diamonds is about 900 million years old. In addition, diamond is a precious metal because it is rare in the world. (Annual turnover is billions of dollars)
Diamond, which is the allotrope of the carbon atom (arranging the atoms in differential geometry in space), is very difficult to form. The necessary environment for its formation is high temperature and high pressure in the underground crust… It is possible to create such an environment in a laboratory environment. Such an environment has already been produced since 1950. With the HTHP (High-Pressure High Temperature) method, a high temperature and high-pressure environment are created to produce diamonds at a relatively low cost. However, the yield is low in this method… (the stones may be small and pale in color.)
If we come to the crucial part; There is another method that has been developed for 3 years in order to further purify the diamonds. The name of this is the method called “Chemical Vapor Deposition Method”. In a vacuum environment, a diamond seed is placed on the nail-thin bottom part (carbon plasma), by exposing it to microwave rays, methane, and hydrogen gases, it accumulates carbon between the plasmas and allows the carbons to bond, producing diamonds. This method, developed by IIa Technologies, produced 30% and 40% cheaper diamonds. According to the data, 1500 tons of diamonds were used in industry in 2014 and 99% of them are artificial.
Of course, if we do brainstorming; The widespread use of artificial diamond production and the fact that it can be obtained at less cost will gradually increase the availability of diamonds. So much so that while talking about the superiorities of the diamond above, it is obvious that it is the best in its field. Thus, we can see artificial diamonds more and more in other sectors where their properties are prominent, not in the jewelry sector where their properties are unimportant.
Why The Usage Areas of Diamond Expand
Diamond is one of the natural stones with the highest monetary value. Because it is a precious stone, it is used in the jewelry industry. Diamond has become so valuable thanks to its properties. Another reason why diamonds are so valuable is that they are mined very little around the world. Diamond is one of the hardest materials in the world. Due to this feature, it is also used in places where extremely hard materials are needed, apart from the jewelry sector. Thanks to the properties of diamond, its usage areas have also expanded.
Since diamond is a hard type of stone, it is not used especially in the jewelry industry. Diamond is also known to be used to easily cut extremely hard material. Due to this feature, diamond continues to be one of the indispensable materials of the cutting tool industry. We mentioned that diamond has a high thermal resistance. Some special types of diamonds melt only when 3547 degrees is reached. Due to this feature, it is also used for thermal insulation in areas with high temperatures.
Diamond is a type of stone that is formed as a result of the modification of the element carbon. It occurs when carbon and graphite come together to form a compound in a special way. Diamond is the hardest material in the world. French chemist Lavoisier discovered that diamond contains pure carbon. Famous scientist Lavoisier examined the gases released after burning the diamond and saw that only carbon dioxide was released as a result of the combustion. After this experiment, he determined that the diamond was composed of carbon.
When examining the properties of diamond, we encounter that this material is extremely hard and even the hardest material in the world. As a result of the tests on the hardness value of the diamond, it was determined that the hardness value of this material was 10.
The fact that diamond is so hard, makes it the hardest material in the world. Other substances that are in the list of the hardest substances after diamond are quartz, topaz, and ruby. In order to understand the hardness value of the diamond, it will be sufficient to compare it with these substances, which we have counted, especially the diamond. People who find stones with different appearances in nature wonder how to understand diamonds. If the properties of the diamond are well known, it can be easily determined after a little examination whether the existing substance is diamond.
Diamond is formed by the combination of carbon and graphite to form a compound. Today, because technology has advanced tremendously, diamonds are produced artificially by combining carbon and graphite in the laboratory environment. However, artificial diamonds are among those known to have lower properties than natural diamonds. One of the most important features of a diamond, which distinguishes it from many other materials, is undoubtedly its extremely high melting point.
As a result of the measurements, it was determined that the diamond started to melt at 3547 degrees. It is also known that diamonds, which have colors such as yellow, pink, blue, and brown, are used for protection in areas requiring high heat due to the extremely high melting point. A unit called a carat is used to measure a diamond. In general, the value of a diamond is determined by its color and size. The more unique color and size it has, the higher its monetary value.
The Types of Diamond
Diamonds are classified as rough diamonds, industrial diamonds, and synthetic diamonds. Each type of diamond has its own characteristics. Let us now examine the characteristics of the respective diamond varieties.
Raw Diamond: It is the raw form of the diamond when it is extracted from the ground. Raw diamonds are of various sizes. The larger ones are the most valuable.
Industrial Diamond: It is the type of diamond used in the industrial industry. This diamond is classified among itself as ballas, bort, and carbonate. These names are given according to their hardness values.
Synthetic Diamond: Diamond is among the natural stones. Artificial ones were also made because of their high value. The type of diamond produced by artificial means is called a synthetic diamond.
Diamond is also classified according to the colors it has around the world. The colors of the diamonds released so far are as follows.
- White Diamond
- Black Diamond
- Yellow Diamond
- Brown Diamond
- Pink Diamond
- Violet Diamond
- Blue Diamond
- Green Diamond
- Colorless Diamond
- Red Diamond
- Black Diamond
Among these diamonds, there is more interest in the pink-colored diamond than the others. For this reason, the pink diamond has found its place at the top of the list of the most expensive diamonds.
Naturally mined diamonds are mostly found in South Africa, Russia, South America, Indonesia, India, and Australia. Since natural diamonds are extremely expensive, artificially obtained diamonds are used in many sectors.
Although the features of artificial diamonds are lower than natural diamonds, it is known that artificial diamonds exhibit properties close to natural diamonds thanks to developing technology.
Although the value of the originals decreased when artificial ones were made, such a thing did not happen with diamonds. Although artificial diamonds are sold cheaply in the market, natural diamonds have never lost their value.
Cutting Diamond Types, Properties, and Usage Areas
In our article, in which we wrote about the types of cutting diamonds and their properties, we discussed the subject of cutting diamonds, which can be said to be the hardest material in human hands. Diamond cutting tools are generally preferred for machining non-ferrous metal workpieces or non-metallic materials. The reason why diamond is so hard is that its crystal structure provides it with high bonding energy. You can find the details of the reasons for the use of diamond cutters among the cutting tool types in the continuation of the article. Types of cutting diamonds are divided into:
- Natural Diamond: Natural diamond has high-temperature resistance. It can remain unmelted even at temperatures higher than almost 3000 degrees Celsius. Hardness and resistance to heat are the distinguishing features that give this material an advantage.
- Artificial Diamond: It has economic and technological advantages over natural diamonds. They are obtained by imitating elements such as temperature and pressure required for the formation of natural diamonds.
Types of cutting diamonds according to their crystal structure are as follows:
- Monocrystalline Diamond Cutting Tools: It can be said that they are the most frequently encountered tools in industrial production. These cutting tools usually have a single cutting edge and are used for purposes such as drilling and turning.
- Polycrystalline Diamond Cutting Tools: Polycrystalline diamond is a material invented in the middle of the second half of the twentieth century. Polycrystalline diamond, which is a relatively young material, has been successful in opening a field for itself in industrial production right after it started to be produced by cutting tool manufacturers. They are the tools obtained by giving the cutting properties by sharpening to the polycrystalline diamond obtained by special methods.
Due to the chemical structure of diamonds, cutting tools containing diamonds react chemically with these materials in operations with iron and steel. For this reason, it is not possible to machine workpieces made of materials such as iron and steel with diamond-containing cutting tools. Monocrystalline diamonds are generally used in the processing of workpieces made of materials such as glass, plastic, and marble.
The ductility of diamonds is not very high. In addition, it is not possible to perform high-depth and progressive cutting operations with diamond cutting tools. For these reasons, diamond cutting tools are generally beneficial in finishing operations. Polycrystalline diamond cutting tools are used for machining aluminum-containing materials.
Cubic boron nitride, whose structure is very similar to diamond, is the hardest substance known to man after natural diamond. Cubic boron nitride, which is a material that started to be produced at the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, has gained increasing importance in the production of cutting tools due to its geometric structure being suitable for cutting operations. Cubic boron nitride is a material with higher resistance to oxidation than diamond. CBN cutting tools are similar to diamond tools in many respects, so they should be mentioned along with diamond cutting tools. Diamond cutting tools have many advantages due to their structure. A few of them can be listed as follows:
- High Abrasion Capacity: Cutting tools containing diamond can achieve high abrasion capacity with relatively low forces. This allows working at relatively lower temperatures and avoiding heat-related deformations. In addition, thanks to this feature, more efficient work can be done by consuming less energy with this type of cutting tool.
- High Abrasion Resistance: Diamond is a hard material due to its structure. Thanks to these features, diamond cutting tools exhibit high resistance to wear.
- Long Tool Life: For this reason, the life of the cutting tools made of diamond, which is a durable material, is relatively longer.
- Low Cost: Due to the above-mentioned features, diamond-cutting tools can significantly reduce the cost per piece.