Diamond is perhaps the most famous and coveted type of stone in the world. The word, which has a meaning in many languages of the world, is also called any jewel in general. Amazing properties are attributed to diamonds, their beauty is sung by poets. Both a rough diamond and a diamond processed by a jeweler’s craftsmanship are fascinating and delightful. So, do you know which diamond is best?
The answer to the question “Which diamond is best?” depends on several factors, such as the 4C value of the diamond, the type of the diamond, as well as the inherent characteristics of the diamond. For example, we can say that a 2-carat diamond is better than a 1-carat diamond when the other properties are the same. Similarly, a colorless diamond is more valuable than a yellow one. Let’s look at all of the properties of the diamond that make it the best.
Determining Which Diamond Is Best: Diamond Types
When you say which diamond is best, the first thing that comes to mind is the diamond types. Knowing the type of diamond helps us a lot in understanding the growth structure, color, and how the diamond will react to treatment processes. The division of diamonds into types emerged as a result of studies that began in the 1930s. This was done with the help of infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, we cannot determine the type of diamond only by loop, gemological spectroscope, UV, and microscopic methods, we only get certain data that we can predict, which does not lead us to a definitive conclusion.
Diamonds were primarily divided into two types: Type 1 and Type 2. This distinction was made on the basis of Nitrogen, the foreign atom that most often enters between the carbons in the diamond’s crystal lattice. The system was built on the fact that while Nitrogen atoms are abundant in diamonds of the first type, they are almost absent in diamonds of the second type, or rather they are too few to be detected by infrared spectroscopy. Although nitrogen is called foreign matter, impurity, impurity, the presence of nitrogen in a diamond should not be considered a defect, each diamond created by nature has its own perfection, these terms are only necessary for our easy classification. Let’s take a look at the types of diamonds.
The vast majority of diamonds are type 1. Nitrogens that enter between carbons are the most basic feature of this group. Nitrogens can be found in groups or singly in the crystal. Most of the yellowish diamonds called Cape Series are in this group. It is divided into two according to the grouping of nitrogens.
- Type 1a
95% of diamonds are of this type. In this type, where nitrogen atoms are found in groups, nitrogen clusters are spread around the stone. This group, in itself, is divided into two according to the number of Nitrogens, their clusters, or rather their color centers. The Color Center is essentially a real scientific subject beyond the diamond type, and I think it is the most enjoyable and complex part for those engaged in diamond research. However, without going into details, let’s define this group in its simplest form. Type 1a is divided into two:
- Type 1aA
Nitrogens are spread out in groups of two. The binary group is called ‘cluster-center A’.
- Type 1aB
There is a gap in the crystal lattice (let’s think of it as the carbon is not where it should be) and there are 4 nitrogen groups around this gap. This set B is called the center.
The vacancy is called V. There may also be cases where both A and B centers are seen in diamonds. Diamond, like all other minerals, is a different world when one wants to go into detail and has many exceptions, so it is not easy to classify diamonds. Another important point about Type 1aB diamonds is that they can be turned from brown to colorless by HPHT treatment. Generally, Type 1a diamond groups fluoresce blue under UV.
- Type 1b
A type of diamond in which nitrogen atoms are separated from each other. Generally, intense yellow, orange and brown diamonds are in this group. They are rare. Synthetic colored diamonds and industrial diamonds are generally in this group.
- Type 2a
These types of diamonds are very popular in our industry these days. In fact, the optically purest, most transparent diamonds are from this group. Famous Cullinan and Kohi Noor diamonds are in this group. They contain only carbon, very few traces – inclusions are observed. Even an extra special report is prepared when type 2a is included in the GIA certificates. These diamonds are usually colorless, but possible color centers can be pink, purple, red, and brown due to pressure and deformation that can occur in the crystal growth structure. They are quite rare.
So why is this group popular? Because colorless synthetic diamonds produced by the CVD method are of this type. So, determining the type of diamond provides us with important data. But just knowing the type of diamond is not enough. Because the important thing is to reach a clear result for such a precious stone, and for this, more detailed analysis with different machines is required by the gemology laboratory.
- Type 2b
They contain Boron atoms. Borons are discrete like type1b nitrogens. It is the rarest group of diamonds. Their electrical conductivity distinguishes them from other groups. Blue and gray diamonds are from this group.
Determining the type of diamond allows us to reach very important information about it. However, high-end spectroscopic and photoluminescence devices are required to determine whether a diamond is synthetic or treated. In summary, if the colorless diamond we have is type 2a, it is possible to be treated or synthetic, and if it is type 1ab, it is possible to be treated. However, these are just possibilities. It is possible to reach a clear conclusion on this subject in the IDL Laboratory.
The 4C Properties Make a Diamond Best
The most important properties that make a diamond best are the 4C properties. The international GIA standard is known as the diamond 4C rule: Color, Clarity, Cutting, and Carat. If your diamond has a 4C certification, you can trust what you are buying because it is a scientific and unbiased document of your diamond’s full quality characteristics.
The color of a diamond is graded in a range from D to Z. It values the current color scale from the most valuable diamond group “D”, called white, transparent, or colorless, to the lowest quality diamond color group “Z”.
- D: It is the class of diamond that is considered completely colorless; It is very rare and very expensive.
- E: It is an acceptable high-quality colorless diamond, with traces of color that can only be detected by an expert.
- F: Still considered colorless by nuance, it is a high-quality diamond grade, but an expert can detect traces of color.
- G-H-I-J: One stage lower quality but still a good diamond value.
- K-L-M: A yellowish, lightly colored diamond color grade, usually with distinct color hints.
- N-O-P-Q-R: Colors on diamonds with gradual yellow or brownish dark hues can be detected with the naked eye.
- S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z: It is easy to see distinctive colors, usually yellow or sometimes brown tones.
The imperfections inside the diamond are called “inclusion-closing”, the imperfections on the outside are called “spots” and each is what makes the jewelry unique. In the GIA 4C rule, clarity consists of 6 categories divided for a total of 11 special grades: Flawless (FL), Internally Flawless (IF), Very Slightly Contained (VVS 1 and VVS 2), Few Contained (VS 1 and VS 2), Slightly Flawed Contains (SI 1 and SI 2), Internally Defects (I 1, I 2 and I 3).
The amount, size, and location of these inclusions and blemishes will determine the degree of clarity of the diamond. Diamonds with the least inclusions or blemishes are the rarest, the most valuable, and therefore the most expensive. These can determine the value of a diamond but are often microscopic so do not necessarily affect its visual beauty.
The only diamond feature that is under human control is its cut. Of all the 4C rules, cut is the most complex and technically difficult to evaluate. But a diamond’s overall appeal, symmetry, and value are largely determined by the quality of its cut. Diamond cut scale is rated as Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, and Poor.
- Perfect Cut: Represents the highest level of diamond quality based on brilliance and symmetry.
- Very Fine Cut: Indicates diamonds that are almost of the best diamond quality. Even any small dark or dull areas in the pattern cannot be noticed.
- Good Cut: These are the diamonds that are relatively less sparkly. These diamond models have moderately dull or dark areas.
- Medium/Fair Cut: Lower quality diamond cut grade. They have very dark or dull areas or spots.
- Weak Cut: Represents the diamond stone that is cut too deep or too shallow, a diamond that loses light from the edges and bottom has a mediocre appearance.
The most common cut type is the round cut, however, there are also popular diamond cut types such as Princess, Emerald, Marquise, Oval, Heart, Pear, Baguette. An expert diamond cuter can deftly bring out the unique beauty of a diamond with a balance of symmetry, facet, proportion, and polish. The ideal proportions of the stone reflect light back into the eye, giving it its famous “diamond” glow. In short, the higher the cut quality, the more it shines. A smaller, expertly cut diamond may actually be more valuable than a larger one.
Carat is the term that anyone who wants to buy a diamond is interested in. However, contrary to popular belief, the carat measurement of a diamond indicates the weight of the diamond, not its size. A carat (not the same thing as carat, which defines the purity of gold) is a unit of weight specifically for diamonds and equals 200 milligrams. Often a carat is abbreviated as “ct” for a single diamond.
If you’re wondering if size really matters when buying a diamond, we can say that larger diamonds are rarer and more in demand. As a general rule, many small stones that weigh as much as one large diamond will always cost less, even if they weigh the same.
How to Know Which Diamond Is Best: Diamond-Related Terms
In order to know which diamond is best, you need to do some research. That actually requires knowing certain specific terms related to the diamonds. Here are some diamond terms and meanings that you may not know about diamonds:
- Abrasion: These are thin slits that appear along with the points where the shaved surfaces of the diamond meet and form white roughness rather than sharp surface edges.
- Asscher Cut: The diamond is like the square shape of the emerald cut. It was invented in the early 1900s by Asccher, an Amsterdam diamond cutter.
- Baguette-Cut: It is a long angular jewel stone cut. It may be tapered at one end.
- Clarity: It is the relative position of the diamond from the perfect to the perfect grade. The clarity grades of the diamond range from FL – IF to excellent.
- Knot: It is an internal Diamond crystal that reaches up to the surface of the Shaved Diamond.
- Cloud: A group of thin, white inclusions that cause a milky or cloudy appearance.
- Crack: It is a diamond defect.
- Pit: Small opening, often resembling a white spot.
- Dahlia Cut: These are oval-shaped diamonds with flat ends. It consists of 51 shaved faces, 37 faces on the crown, and 14 faces on the camber. The Antwerp diamond cutter was invented by Gabi Tolkowssky for De Beers in the 90s.
- Vein: These are small areas resulting from crystallization due to structural diamond defects, which are generally accompanied by very small dots.
- Depth: It is the height of the diamond measured from the turret to the shaved upper surface. The depth percentage is given as a list in the approval documents, where the height of the diamond is specified in proportion to its width (height value, width value). In Diamonds that are too shallow or too deep, the light scattering occurs from the edges or bottom surface, not from the shaved top surface.
- Natural Diamond: The raw part of the Diamond that has managed to remain in the Diamond despite the cutting process.
- Extra-Faced Diamonds: These are “fake”-faced diamonds that do not take into account the symmetry and are not necessary for the cutting style.
- Old European Cut: These are old round cut Diamonds that resemble round brilliant cut Diamonds but with a very small shaved top surface and a heavy crown.
- Fancy: Diamonds that are not round shaped (eg princess, emerald, oval-shaped diamonds, etc.) and/or have an attractive and natural color other than light yellow or brown.
- Fluorescent: In its most common form, it is the bluish light scattering of the diamond under high ultraviolet lighting conditions.
- Fluorescence Degree: Zero, indistinct, light, medium, and strong blue color. A strong blue fluorescent glow, if strong, can cause the diamond to appear milky in daylight.
- Rose Cutting: It is a stone cutting method in which the bases of the diamonds are flat and the top shaved surfaces are cut to the endpoints. Although they are normally encountered in antique jewelry that emerged in the 17th century, they have come to the fore again in the last few years.
- Internal Teething: Internal representation of uneven crystal growth. They can appear in milky color as vague lines or veins, or they can be conservative or reflective.
- Needle: Long thin shape resembling a thin rod inside the crystal.
- Twin Pinch: Nebula area formed due to crystal structure disorder; usually in the form of twin planes.
- Inclusion: A type of imperfection within the Diamond, which is the unique “birthmark” of the diamond. Inclusions are determined by the degree of clarity of the Diamond on the loupe scale of 10. No two Diamonds can have the same inclusion positions, sizes, and colors.
- Heart-Shaped Diamond: It is a different type of fancy diamond cut. Known evokes the form of Valentin’s Day.
- Hearts and Arrows: A perfectly cut round brilliant Diamond with 58 faces. Under special lighting, the H&A Diamond creates heart shapes and an image similar to arrow-shaped stars of the same size.
- Carat Spread: The difference between the weight of an ideally cut gemstone and the weight of another gemstone with the same outer dimensions (arch circumference length) but of a lower quality cut. It is generally used to determine the exact value of Diamonds that have a short and dwarf shape and therefore appear larger than they are.
- Carbon Spots: A term used to describe the appearance of certain inclusions within a Diamond.
- Mixed Cutting: It is a cutting method in which the diamond crown or dome is cut as in bright cutting and the other parts are chip cut.
- Cavity: These are inclusions that create deep or large openings in the diamond.
- Belt: It is the outer edge of the widest part of the diamond that surrounds the diamond from its entire length.
- Notch: A notch found near a belt or a shaved surface.
- Dirty Diamond: Surface defects on the outer surface of the diamond.
- Laser Drill Hole: A hole drilled by the laser to remove an inclusion and is visible on that surface of the Diamond. The opening on the surface resembles a pit, while the hole itself usually has the appearance of a needle.
- Laser Identification: It is the code or identification number engraved on the outer surface of the diamond by using a laser to identify it. It can be removed by shaving.
- Marquee Cut: It is a different type of shiny cut, it has the appearance of an elliptical boot and it tapers towards both ends. It is defined in older evaluation methods such as Navette.
- Melee: Small Diamonds, usually 1.1 ct and under 0.20 carats.
- River: A term that is rarely used to describe the color of the Diamond, with River = D and E = white. The colors between River + and D belong to the unusual white-colored Diamonds.
- Dot: 1 dot is one-100th of a carat.
- Off Make: It is an extremely disproportionate Diamond.
- Certificate of Approval: It is a document consisting of many leaves, which defines the characteristics of the diamond and is issued by a gemology institute (eg HRD, IGI, GIA).
- Oval-Cut: These are the diamonds whose shaved surfaces are cut in an oval shape.
- Bowtie: It is the effect of the shadow created by the lights from the lower surface of the diamond in some fancy shapes.
- Brilliant Cut: It is the most common form of cut; 57 or 58 shaved surfaces are created.
- Pink diamond: A rare natural fancy reddish color. Diamonds processed by the radiation method (non-natural diamonds) can have different shades of pink.
- Pendelock cutting: It is a pearl-shaped brilliant diamond cutting method.
- Polishing: They describe the ingenuity of the diamond cutter while shaping the diamond. In this, apart from the natural features of the diamond, there are all kinds of qualities related to its appearance.
- Gloss Mark: Nebula surface formations formed by shaved rough surfaces caused by excessive heat (also called burn spot or burned face) structural defects.
- Diamond Ratio: It is the ratio of the length of the diamond to its width. It is only used to profile fancy-shaped Diamonds. Not applicable to Round Diamonds.
- Premier: These are diamonds with a yellowish body color masked by a strong fluorescent glow. Although these Diamonds may appear whiter than they really are, they are oil-colored or a dim color or milky color in daylight or Fluorescent glow. Prices are relatively lower.
- Princess-Cut: Normally, they are square-shaped diamonds with a shaved lower face. The only difference from brilliant-cut diamonds is its square prism-shaped body.
- Radian Cut: It is a brilliant-cut and fantasy-shaped type of diamond that resembles a square or rectangle with the corners cut out.
- Beard: Thin, multiple hair-like sections extending into the diamond.
- Eight-cut: Limited to extremely small Diamonds (17 – 18), which usually have fewer faces than a full brilliant Diamond, also called a “single cut”. Most of them are cut in the Far East countries and they are used to minimize costs.
- Hardness: It is the resistance of the mineral to scratching on a flat surface. It is indicated by degrees of hardness from 1 to 10 on the Mohs scale.
- Symmetry: These are minor fluctuations in the symmetry of the diamonds, such as misalignments on the surfaces or surfaces whose endpoints do not fully overlap the arch. The quality of the diamond cut is indicated by any of the grades Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, medium, or poor.
- Transparent Eye: These are the Diamonds without a loop and without any inclusions that can be seen with the naked eye.
- Table: It is the flat surface at the top of the diamond. The largest surface of the Cut Diamond is the table.
- Table Percentage: It is the value that represents the ratio of the diameter of the table surface of the diamond to the whole diameter of the diamond. The table of a Diamond with a table ratio of 60% is 60% of its profile width.
- Crown: It is the part of the stone on the arch.
- Crown Angle: It is the angle at which the shaved bezel surface of the diamond (or in the belt formed by concentric shaved surfaces in ruby segments) intersects the belt plane.
- Single Cut: These are very small round diamonds that have only 16 or 17 faces, out of the full cut 57 or 58 faceted bright and round diamonds. It is most commonly seen in Pave jewelry.
- Shaving Lines: These are the small lines left over from the shaving process. They appear as thin parallel lines trapped in a single surface due to crystal structure defects or as parallel bright grooves due to irregularities in the excavated surface.
- Belt With Shaved Face: Some Diamond cutters also shave the belt of the Diamond to achieve maximum reflection. In round diamonds, the belt of the diamond is divided into 32 faces.
- Shaved Top Surface: It is the flat and shaved surface of the diamonds.
- Tone: It is the name given to the position of the diamond in the colorless to the black color range.
- Feather: These are the lines of separation between the openings, which usually have the appearance of a white feather, resulting from the splitting or splitting of the diamond.
- Upper Wesselton: It is the name given to the diamond colors in the F and G-range. Color F is referred to by some as Upper Wesselton+.
- Van Graff: It is an artificial Diamond made of Yttrium Oxide reinforced with CZ and the hardness value of this Diamond on the Mohs hardness scale: 8.7.
- Wesselton: It is the original name of the Diamond mine where the White Diamond is extracted. It is rarely used today for the color of Diamonds. It corresponds to the Wesselton H color class. Upper Wesselton corresponds to the F and G color ranges. Some people call F color Diamonds Top Wesselton+.
- Ruby Cut: Generally, they are chip-cut diamonds with rectangular shapes and cut corners. The ideal length to width ratio of a Ruby Diamond is between 1.5 and 1.7.
- Burn: It is an inclusion that is often seen with hairs with thin roots and includes surface comminution.
- Cleavage: It is the tendency of stones containing crystalline minerals, such as diamonds, to split in one or more directions, along with or parallel to certain planes, under the influence of a sharp blow. Cleavage is one of the methods that Diamond cutters use to cut raw Diamonds in preparation for the cutting process. The use of saw blades is another method.
- Wide-cut: It is a diamond cut with a broadly shaved top and thin crowns.
- Green Diamond: It is a rare type of natural fantasy diamond from lime white to dark green.
- Chip: It is the small part of the diamond that has been lost as a result of wear or cutting in its normal life.
- Chip Cut: It consists of three different surface adjustments, with three concentric rows of razored surfaces on the razor top surface and three concentric rows on the tower.
- Round Cut: It is the most common cut, which generally includes 58 faces. Diamonds cut in this way are also the brightest Diamonds, and they call the Diamond “brilliant” since the light causes it to shine most effectively.
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